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[en] Prospective scenario exercises raise a key question with respect to evolutions in the electricity installed base and the pre-requisites for an increased integration of renewable energies. Many studies from various perspectives have made it possible to model electricity systems based on a growing share of renewable energies. The methodologies used, their spatial and temporal granularity as well as their results, are quite diverse and even contradictory at times, at least on the surface. This article, based on a study carried out for the Theme-Based Technology Transfer Consortium of the French Alliance for the Coordination of Energy Research, notably sets forth an analysis that enhances our understanding of these results. (authors)
[en] This paper reviews some of the issues connected with questions of ethics, health economics, radiation dose and referral criteria arising from a workshop held under the auspices of the Sentinel Research Program FP6-012909. An extensive bibliography of further reading is included. (authors)
[en] This study addresses electrolyzers and associated hydrogen storages, and aims at proposing a background for the elaboration of the French regulation regarding these installations which are being developed in France. It is based on a bibliographical study of regulatory documents, standards, press articles and professional guides from different European, Northern American and Asian countries which possess hydrogen production installations, and also on information obtained from surveys among professional, authorities and experts. It proposes an overview of installations (technologies, quantities and production capacities), of their usages (grid balance, natural gas injection, and so on) and of their potential deployment. It identifies the risks associated with these installations and their main safety functions, determines the supra-national framework (European directives) which may result in regulatory obligations in France, identifies reference texts (regulations, guides, standards) applicable to these installations, and describes authorisation processes applied in different countries.
[en] The authors first report a bibliographical review on carbon assessment of BECCS (bio-energy and carbon capture and storage), and then propose a technological innovation which would result in an improvement of their carbon print: the CO_2-Dissolved technology. Thus, they outline the challenges of the carbon print of fossil carbon capture and storage, discusses the specificities of BECCS (transformation of biomass into energy, carbon print of BECCS processes for the production of ethanol, of electricity, or of paper pulp). They discuss the contribution of the CO_2-dissolved technology to the production of bio-ethanol: description of a French plant and case of supercritical carbon capture and storage, characteristics of the concept (operation, carbon print assessment)
[en] The topic of exploitation of nuclear energy is becoming increasingly actual in the present time in connection with frequently discussed question of 'renaissance of nuclear energetics'. The work is aimed at research of geographical aspects of exploitation of nuclear energy for military and civil purposes on the territory of Europe. The base of work represents the analysis of theoretical aspects of research of energy, mainly of nuclear energy. The work examines the historical development of exploitation of nuclear energy since its discovery, through development of military nuclear industry in Europe, big attention is paid to spreading of nuclear energetics on the territory of Europe from its beginnings up to the present time. The main part of the work represents the analysis of the present situation of exploitation of nuclear energy for civil purposes in Europe. The attention is paid to so-called nuclear fuel cycle as complex chain of several reciprocally interconnected operations of nuclear fuel treatment. The monitoring of spatial relations among individual countries within their nuclear fuel cycles is emphasised. The analysis of historical development and of the present state of nuclear energetics finished up in the outline of the perspectives of its further development in Europe. The analysis of the tendencies of evolution of world energetic economy mentions on the trend of growth of energy consumption in the world and Europe, as well as on the important position of nuclear energy in the structure of energy sources. Summary in English language is included. (author)
[en] Thailand has made a serious aim to employ nuclear power by adopting five 1,000 MWt in the 2010 national Power Development Plan (PDP 2010) with the first NPP coming online in 2020. However, after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011, the National Energy Policy Committee had made the resolution to postpone the plan by 3 years. The post-Fukushima atmosphere does not bode well for the public sentiment towards the proposed programme, especially with regards to safety of an NPP. Nonetheless, during the six decades that NPPs have been in operation in 32 countries worldwide, there are only 19 serious accidents involving fatalities and/or damage to properties in excess of 100 million USD. Out of the three significant accidents - Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986), and Three Miles Island nuclear accident (1979) - only the accident at Three Miles Island occurs during normal operation. Such can be implied that the operation of NPPs does maintain a high level of safety. The current technology on nuclear safety has been advancing greatly to the point that the new NPP design claims to render the possibility of a severe accident resulting in core melting insignificant. Along with the technical improvements, laws and regulations have also be progressing in parallel to adequately compensate and limit the liability of operators in case of a nuclear accident. The international agreements such as the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Convention of the Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy had also been established and also the national laws of countries such as the United States and Japan have been implemented to address such issues to the point that victims of a nuclear accidents are adequately and justly compensated. In addition to the issues of nuclear accident, the dilemma in nuclear waste management, especially with regards to the High Level Waste which is highly radioactive while having very long half-lives, must also be addressed. The current waste management technology points towards storing such waste inside a deep geological depository. However, such a method is highly criticized if the integrity of the depository can be maintained after thousands of years. If Thailand does aim towards completing the nuclear power programme in the future, Thailand must find a practical and appropriate mean to manage the waste before all else.
[en] This research paper provides an overview of the European carbon trading system more than three years after its creation. The first part of the paper places the Emissions Trading Scheme in the international context of the Kyoto Protocol and presents this system which is a response from Europe to its commitments against global warming. The second part is a summary of the literature available to study the formation of a price per ton of CO2 on European markets and the influence of various factors on this price. Finally, the paper focused, through case studies and interviews with actors at the heart of this system, to observe the action of private groups on these markets and to identify the room for maneuver to improve their efficiency. (author)
[fr]Ce memoire de recherche permet d'acquerir une vision d'ensemble du systeme europeen d'echange de quotas carbone, plus de trois ans apres sa creation. La premiere partie du memoire replace l'Emissions Trading Scheme dans le contexte international issu du protocole de Kyoto et presente ce systeme qui constitue une reponse de l'Europe a ses engagements contre le rechauffement climatique. La deuxieme partie constitue une synthese de la litterature disponible afin d'etudier la formation d'un prix de la tonne de CO2 sur les marches europeens et l'influence de differents facteurs sur ce prix. Enfin, nous nous sommes attaches, par des etudes de cas et des entretiens avec des acteurs au coeur de ce systeme, a observer l'action des groupes prives sur ces marches et a identifier les marges de manoeuvre pour en ameliorer l'efficience. (auteurs)
[en] At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites
[en] A the convergence of energy and economic issues, the post-carbon era wishes to deeply change the actual organisation of urbanism, economy and society. Since 2009, the prospective mission of the Ministry of ecology and of the Environment and energy management agency (Ademe) jointly manage the prospective research program 'rethinking cities in a post-carbon society'. The objectives of this program are to develop prospective researches on urban transitions based on fossil fuels phase-out, improved energy management and climate change mitigation. This document is a selected bibliography of relevant documents about this topic. Resources can be either web sites, books, journal articles, dossiers or reports, with a short abstract for non-conventional documents only.