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[en] This report presents the results of the qualitative aspect of the study relative to the 2017-2018 French market follow up of residential photovoltaic systems. These results complement those about the quantitative aspect of this same market segment. Content: 1 - Main trends of the photovoltaic market: comparison with the previous year and brakes on sector development; 2 - Supply: a market of innovation, self-consumption, the recurrent problem of environmental crime; 3 - Institutional environment: institutional support to the photovoltaic industry, 'Grenelle Environment' qualification, regulatory aspects of grid connection; 4 - Three proposals to support the sector.
[en] After an identification of 5 postures which clarify the ADEME's role with communities, and of 4 strategic axes to strengthen this relationship, this report discusses how the ADEME can prioritise its actions: an approach adapted to each community in order to strengthen partnerships, to develop the mobilisation of inter-communities, and to maintain a specific intervention with overseas communities. Some specific and targeted actions are briefly presented. The next part outlines the ADEME's role as a trustworthy expert for the implementation of the energy and ecological transition, how the ADEME aims at bringing together actors, mobilises actors and finances actions, takes specific needs of territories into account, and is able to catalyse initiatives. While mentioning some examples, the next part describes objectives and commitments related to a marketing approach and action implementation.
[en] Whereas scenarios with ambitious objectives in terms of reduction of greenhouse effect gases are based on the use of techniques of CO2 capture, transport and geological storage (for example in a scenario developed by IAE and published in 2012 in Energy Technology Perspectives), this study aims at proposing a large economic overview of these techniques applied to electric power plants, and at studying the CO2 price level from which such equipped plants become competitive. This referred as CO2 switch price. The obtained results are in controversy with specialised literature about this level. These differences are discussed and examined. The influence of the different fuels prices is then highlighted.
[en] This article proposes an overview of the situation of the Reunion island regarding energy and the perspectives of energy autonomy by 2030. It appears that the level of imports of fossil energies is still high, notably for transports, and that the development of electrical vehicles is not supported. Autonomy in electric power production seems to be a more realistic objective, but, even though a development of photovoltaic power production is planned, phasing out coal (which represents 28 pc of electricity production) appears to be more difficult. Some biomass solutions are evoked: imports of pellets from Northern America and Brazil, the passage from sugar cane to cane mulch production. But this last issue is a difficult one for farmers. Three projects are briefly presented: solar greenhouses, a run-rail transport system, and a bio-climatic eco-district
[en] Fuel poverty in developed countries is a growing concern as between 50 and 125 million Europeans are unable to afford the energy needed for adequate heating, cooking, light, and use of appliances in the home. Tackling fuel poverty has thus become a public policy challenge. The literature reports that rising fuel prices, low incomes, and energy-inefficient housing are the main causes of fuel poverty. However, existing public policies focus mainly on price- and income-based measures to reduce fuel poverty. One government policy, social housing, impacts all three causes of fuel poverty. Since it is highly regulated and heavily influenced by government policies, social housing might be a powerful policy instrument to reduce fuel poverty. Social housing has the potential to fight housing energy inefficiency, which is one cause of fuel poverty, especially as governments promote the construction and renovation of social housing. In this paper, we assess the effectiveness of such measures through matching methods and find that living in social housing decreases fuel poverty by 4.1% to 8.5%, depending on the definition of fuel poverty. (authors)
[en] For households, taxing carbon raises the cost of the energy they use to heat their home and to travel. This paper studies the distributional impacts of the recently introduced French carbon tax and the design of compensation measures. Using a micro-simulation model built on a representative sample of the French population from 2012, I simulate for each household the taxes levied on its consumption of energy for housing and transport. Without recycling, the carbon tax is regressive and increases fuel poverty. However, I show how compensation measures can offset these impacts. A flat cash transfer offsets tax regressivity by redistributing <60% of households' contribution. This result falls to 17% when the transfer is targeted at low-income households. Furthermore, I find that targeting the cash transfer reduces fuel poverty by up to 50% below its pre-tax level with a 30.50 euros/tCO2 carbon tax. These results demonstrate compensating households is achievable at reasonable cost relative to carbon tax revenues. Carbon taxation even constitutes an opportunity to finance ambitious policies to fight fuel poverty. Highlights - I quantify the distributional impacts of carbon taxation with micro-simulation. - Without recycling, the carbon tax is regressive and increases fuel poverty. - Different designs of cash transfers are compared to protect households. - Regressivity is offset by redistributing <60% of households' contribution. - Targeting the recycling at low-income reduces fuel poverty far below pre-tax level. (author)
[en] Faced with the energy transition imperative, governments have to decide about public policy to promote renewable electrical energy production and to protect domestic power generation equipment industries. For example, the Canada - Renewable energy dispute is over Feed-in tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario that have a local content requirement (LCR). The EU and Japan claimed that FIT programs constitute subsidies that go against the SCM Agreement, and that the LCR is incompatible with the non-discrimination principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This paper investigates this issue using an international quality differentiated duopoly model in which power generation equipment producers compete on price. FIT programs including those with a LCR are compared for their impacts on trade, profits, amount of renewable electricity produced, and welfare. When 'quantities' are taken into account, the results confirm discrimination. However, introducing a difference in the quality of the power generation equipment produced on both sides of the border provides more mitigated results. Finally, the results enable discussion of the question of whether environmental protection can be put forward as a reason for subsidizing renewable energy producers in light of the SCM Agreement. (authors)
[en] The aim of this article is to study the impact of a massive diffusion of electric vehicles in the world transportation sector on the lithium market. Lithium, like other strategic materials, has found new markets in the context of the energy transition. Hence, the capacity of those strategic materials to supply these new markets can be questioned. To achieve this goal, we have developed the first detailed global bottom-up energy model, TIAM-IFPEN (Times Integrated Assessment Model-IFPEN) with an endogenous dis-aggregated life-cycle inventories. It would clearly assess the dynamic criticality of strategic materials according to the optimal technology paths with environmental and/or energy solicitations through different approaches: geological, geopolitical, and economic towards a sustainable development. Four scenarios have been run taking into account two climate scenarios (4 deg. C and 2 deg. C) with two shapes of mobility each: a high mobility where we assume the impact of urban dispersal with a huge car dependence/usage, and a low mobility where the idea of a sustainability in mobility is assumed. The penetration of electric vehicle (EV) at the global level would push the demand of cumulated lithium but the results show us an absence of geological criticality. Nevertheless, they have clearly highlighted other different forms of vulnerabilities, whether economic, industrial, geopolitical or environmental. A discussion about the future risk factors applied to the lithium market has been also done at a regional scale to analyse more in-depth the impact of the future global fleet development on lithium market. Our study of this particular strategic material shows that the model could be a useful decision-making tool for assessing future raw material market stresses along with energy transition and could be extended to other critical raw materials for more efficient regional and sectorial screening. (authors)
[en] The decline in CO2 emissions from road vehicles is essential to the sustainable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. At the global level, the transport sector represents a 23% of total greenhouse gas emissions. In France, this sector plays a comparatively greater role; in 2014 it was responsible for 28.5% of greenhouse gas emissions, making it the largest emitter, far ahead of the agriculture (17%) and residential/tertiary (16%) sectors. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector, solutions depend on the development of new engine technologies, biofuels, new fuels and zero-carbon alternative energies. In addition to lowering greenhouse gas emissions, these solutions provide additional benefits, such as improving local air quality (especially in the case of electric vehicles) and reducing oil imports. (authors)
[en] The wholesale markets observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas in France. This observatory is updated on a quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). A French version is also available. The first part of the report summarizes the highlights of the quarter. The indicators (main dates, key figures and Figures) are detailed in the second part.