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[en] This report presents the results of the qualitative aspect of the study relative to the 2017-2018 French market follow up of residential photovoltaic systems. These results complement those about the quantitative aspect of this same market segment. Content: 1 - Main trends of the photovoltaic market: comparison with the previous year and brakes on sector development; 2 - Supply: a market of innovation, self-consumption, the recurrent problem of environmental crime; 3 - Institutional environment: institutional support to the photovoltaic industry, 'Grenelle Environment' qualification, regulatory aspects of grid connection; 4 - Three proposals to support the sector.
[en] After an identification of 5 postures which clarify the ADEME's role with communities, and of 4 strategic axes to strengthen this relationship, this report discusses how the ADEME can prioritise its actions: an approach adapted to each community in order to strengthen partnerships, to develop the mobilisation of inter-communities, and to maintain a specific intervention with overseas communities. Some specific and targeted actions are briefly presented. The next part outlines the ADEME's role as a trustworthy expert for the implementation of the energy and ecological transition, how the ADEME aims at bringing together actors, mobilises actors and finances actions, takes specific needs of territories into account, and is able to catalyse initiatives. While mentioning some examples, the next part describes objectives and commitments related to a marketing approach and action implementation.
[en] Whereas scenarios with ambitious objectives in terms of reduction of greenhouse effect gases are based on the use of techniques of CO2 capture, transport and geological storage (for example in a scenario developed by IAE and published in 2012 in Energy Technology Perspectives), this study aims at proposing a large economic overview of these techniques applied to electric power plants, and at studying the CO2 price level from which such equipped plants become competitive. This referred as CO2 switch price. The obtained results are in controversy with specialised literature about this level. These differences are discussed and examined. The influence of the different fuels prices is then highlighted.
[en] This article proposes an overview of the situation of the Reunion island regarding energy and the perspectives of energy autonomy by 2030. It appears that the level of imports of fossil energies is still high, notably for transports, and that the development of electrical vehicles is not supported. Autonomy in electric power production seems to be a more realistic objective, but, even though a development of photovoltaic power production is planned, phasing out coal (which represents 28 pc of electricity production) appears to be more difficult. Some biomass solutions are evoked: imports of pellets from Northern America and Brazil, the passage from sugar cane to cane mulch production. But this last issue is a difficult one for farmers. Three projects are briefly presented: solar greenhouses, a run-rail transport system, and a bio-climatic eco-district
[en] The decline in CO2 emissions from road vehicles is essential to the sustainable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. At the global level, the transport sector represents a 23% of total greenhouse gas emissions. In France, this sector plays a comparatively greater role; in 2014 it was responsible for 28.5% of greenhouse gas emissions, making it the largest emitter, far ahead of the agriculture (17%) and residential/tertiary (16%) sectors. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector, solutions depend on the development of new engine technologies, biofuels, new fuels and zero-carbon alternative energies. In addition to lowering greenhouse gas emissions, these solutions provide additional benefits, such as improving local air quality (especially in the case of electric vehicles) and reducing oil imports. (authors)
[en] The wholesale markets observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas in France. This observatory is updated on a quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). A French version is also available. The first part of the report summarizes the highlights of the quarter. The indicators (main dates, key figures and Figures) are detailed in the second part.
[en] The energy efficiency in buildings is generally the first sector to be targeted in order to achieve a massive reduction in energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases. This sector is a priority in French energy and climate policy. An important program to reduce energy consumption in buildings is currently being implemented within the framework of the 'Grenelle Environment' (Environmental Round Table). In a rapidly expanding sector, efforts at a national level have enabled France to offer a high quality and a dynamic range of products and services. To showcase, this brochure presents a summary of French expertise in the field of energy efficiency in buildings: offers from private companies, the public policy framework, measures to support Research and Development, innovation and training etc. This brochure is part of a published collection of themed brochures aimed at presenting French products and services in the Eco-Technologies sector, in particular the renewable energy. (author)
[en] Overland transport of passengers and goods is primarily accomplished using road vehicles, with the following consequences: - the place of these vehicles in our society is such that it can be described as a society largely built around and for cars, - these vehicles are manufactured in such a way as to propose very large series of products, at an optimal cost for the stakeholders, in particular car manufacturers and parts suppliers, who operate on a global scale. This type of development now runs the risk of reaching its limits due to its generalisation around the world and its impact on global warming. The threats to society are seen in: - a very strong resistance to controlling, let alone cutting back CO2 emissions from transport in developed countries, - sharply rising CO2 emissions in this sector, most notably on a global scale, with the growth of vehicle fleets (passenger cars in particular) in emerging-economy countries, - a nearly total dependence on fossil fuels, especially petroleum. Governments engaged in the fight against the greenhouse effect face a difficult challenge that requires solutions to widely varying problems: - environmental issues (for example forthcoming regulations for pollutants and CO2, modal transfer policies, mobility management policies), - economic issues: the large proportion of motor industry jobs in industrial employment or the economic models for alternative solutions (funding of public transport, urban planning, deployment of electrical recharging stations, etc.), - regulatory issues tied to our car-aligned transport system (outlying urban areas deprived of public transport, security requirements, etc.), - the historic place occupied by cars in our cultural imagery, in which cars are linked to the acquisition of independence, freedom, power, etc. In order to develop technological innovations for improving the greenhouse gas emissions report in a macro-economically difficult context, some industrialists have committed to alliance and unification mechanisms, therefore positioning themselves as key stakeholders in terms of members, solutions or systems for the electrification of automotive traction. Indeed, industrial stakeholders are experiencing significant changes which should be supported. These developments are led by the emergence of new growth models involving: - on the one hand the creation of technological innovations targeting the creation of additional functions for vehicles, - on the other hand the development of added values via mobility service offers to meet new needs expressed in terms of travel. Moreover, support from the State, in particular via the Research Demonstrator Fund, has led to experiments with innovative concepts for components and advanced drive systems. Today, these technological demonstrations must move on to the pre-industrialisation phase so as to assess their suitability to the current market developments or to test their capacity to trigger developments within the market. The Future Investments Vehicle of the Future program will cross this threshold for industrialising these new clean, energy-saving technologies by its use of: - the progress made by the Research Demonstrator Fund and feasibility demonstrations performed on fully or partially electrified vehicles, - the actions undertaken in terms of new mobility and services via the CEI 'Mobility: daily passenger transport and final routing of goods' within the scope of the Future Investments program.
[en] Because fossil fuels still cover a large share of energy demand, a transition is needed towards low-emission sources of heat, such as geothermal energy, biomass, solar power and use of residual heat. Heat storage has a key contribution to make as it provides the flexibility required to manage variations in heat demand and supply. Underground storage can absorb far larger quantities of heat than surface storage, potentially lowering the costs of storing large amounts of heat and reducing the land areas required. HeatStore is one of the nine projects conducted under the European Eranet Geothermica programme, which is working to accelerate geothermal energy deployment. The main goals of the HeatStore project are to reduce costs and risks, improve the performance of high-temperature underground heat storage technology and optimise the management of demand from heat distribution networks. The project partners have set a target reduction in heat production costs of at least 20%. As an expert organisation in the fields of geothermal energy and underground storage, the BRGM is contributing to the HeatStore project in several ways: Participation in benchmarking of the different numerical codes developed by the project partners against data acquired through the demonstrators. Application of probabilistic and possibilistic approaches in handling uncertainties in the development and operation of underground thermal energy storage (UTES) facilities. A study of underground heat storage potential on the scale of a region, by cross-analysing geological data, modelling results produced during the project and existing data on surface terrain (e.g. development of heat distribution networks).
[en] After an introduction which outlines the interest of a development of energy efficiency and of sources of renewable energy, this report proposes a comparative overview of situations in different countries and more particularly European countries (international situation for energy efficiency, energy intensities in Europe, supports for sources of renewable energies). Then, it more specifically addresses energy efficiency by outlining the evolutions of the French policy and the necessity of defining high objectives, but also by outlining opportunities, programmes and measures in different sectors (industry, transports, housing and office building, management of electric power demand). The next part addresses sources of renewable energies (sources for power production and thermal sources), and states a set of detailed propositions to develop these different sources and sectors. Cooperation and export aspects are then addressed (with central and eastern European countries, with developing countries). Several appendices are proposed: data on the international energy situation, comparison of energy intensities among European countries between 1980 and 1998, international comparison of energy efficiency in terms of legislation and for the different main sectors, and international comparison of sources of renewable energies (France, UK, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Sweden, Netherlands, California).