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[en] The aim of the present paper is to provide a short analysis regarding the practice concerning the application of the Aarhus Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters (Århus Convention) in relation to the use of nuclear energy. By referring to the individual cases, the question of a balance between the right of the public to participate in environmental matters on the one hand and the interest of maintaining the safety of nuclear installations on the other is being discussed. Specifically, it is an illustration of two sequential cases of alleged violations of the Århus Convention in the context of construction of the Mochovce 3 and 4 reactor units. (author)
[en] Sustainable agricultural technologies are of great significance in fully utilizing agricultural resources and promoting agricultural production. However, the adoption rates of these technologies are often characterized as low in rural areas in China. To figure out the potential salient determinants of rice farmers’ willingness to adopt sustainable agricultural technologies, this paper, by employing the multivariate probit model and ordered probit model, particularly and firstly explores the roles of observational learning and experience-based learning through communication from parents within the household on rice farmers’ willingness to adopt these technologies. Results show that there are strong complementarities and substitutabilities between sustainable agricultural technologies that rice farmers are willing to adopt, and that observational learning and experience-based learning through communication within the household do have pronounced effects on rice farmers’ willingness to adopt some sustainable agricultural technologies and on their intensive use intentions. Therefore, while formulating policies to improve the adoption rates and adoption intensity of these technologies, relevant government agencies should take the complementarities and substitutabilities between sustainable agricultural technologies as well as observational learning and experience-based learning through communication from parents into consideration.
[en] There is a process in Ukraine on updating its first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to Paris Agreement. The first NDC or Intended Nationally Determined Contribution , approved by the Government of Ukraine on 16th September 2015, stipulates that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2030 will not exceed 60% of 1990 level. One of the main objectives of the above-mentioned NDC updating process is to enhance its mitigation ambition in the light of current GHG emissions profiles, abilities and the strong need for economic recovery. According to the data from the last reviewed Ukraine’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2015 the total GHG emissions (without land use, land use change and forestry) in 2015 accounted for 323 Mt CO2-eq. or 33,6% of 1990 level which is the lowest since 1990 due to economic slump in 2014-2015. Therein GHG emissions when producing in 2015 of 157,2 TWh electricity accounted for 58,5 Mt CO2-eq. or 372 kg CO2-eq./MWh that is about 25% less than worldwide average. This is due to the large role of nuclear power in electricity generation sector of Ukraine. The share of nuclear energy in total annual volumes of electricity production increased on about 10% during 2012-2017 and reached its peak level in 2015.
[en] Climate change has become one of the global phenomenon which needs much attention. The most vulnerable is the developing countries hence measures should be put in place to reduce its vulnerability. Like many other developing countries, Ghana recognizes its vulnerability to climate risk and the challenges climate change present for economic development. Ghana’s response to climate change has been very good, when measured by signature and in documentation to meet the external requirements of the international architecture. Ghana has ratified the three main Rio conventions and the Kyoto protocols and has taken steps to meet its obligations under this convention, in particular, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
[en] The evaluation of the electricity sector shows that Lebanon needs necessarily an effective energy transition to a secure energy supply over the long term while at the same time addressing the climate change commitments by the penetration of low-carbon energy sources including nuclear energy, which is out of consideration in Lebanon, to maintain a sustainable baseload power. Due to the economic situation, weak national power grid, topographic characteristics and demographic distribution, the marine-based small modular reactors (SMRs) would be a suitable technology for Lebanon. Additionally, a land-based low-power multi-units SMR design such as NuScale seems to be an ideal technology fitting the characteristics and performance of the Lebanese small grid. It is found that two SMR-NuScale stations might replace 19 of the 23 operating fossil fuel power units due to their aging, low capacity factors and high production cost of electricity, and hence reduce 66% of the CO2eq. emissions caused by electricity generation. (author)
[en] Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are often operated as a base load supplier of electricity because they are thought to be more efficient operated as such. The adjustment to daily or seasonal demand of electricity can be done with another sources of power generation, often because nuclear energy contribution to the energy mix is relatively small. But if NPPs are to be operated as major supplier of electricity in an energy mix, it needs more maneuvering capabilities. Some NPPs are capable of quick load-following, but there might be methods that is more economic and environmentally friendly. This paper will briefly discuss qualitatively different methods of power generation/storage/usage that can be coupled with NPPs for load following purposes based on their environmental impact, economic, and technological readiness aspect. (author)
[en] In its Communication “A Clean Planet for all”, the European Commission outlines the European Union strategic long-term vision for reaching a climate-neutral economy by 2050 and confirms that nuclear will form the backbone of a carbon-free European power system, together with renewables. But is the EU ambitious enough in reaching the 2050 targets? Is the current legislation suitable for the transition to a carbon free power system? What would be the role of the nuclear sector in the long term? This paper aims at analysing the current situation and the vision of the European nuclear sector from an industry perspective and will try to bring responses to the questions above. This perspective will be based on the results of 2 studies recently commissioned by FORATOM, the trade association of the European nuclear industry. The first one2, released in November 2018, models future energy output based on different reports available for Europe, and proposes three nuclear scenarios (low– no long term operation of the existing nuclear fleet and no new build; medium – long term operation of the existing nuclear fleet but limited number of new build; and high - long term operation of the existing nuclear fleet and extensive new build program). It furthermore analyses the impact of these scenarios on security of supply, sustainability and economic aspects. The second study, released in April 2019, analyses the economic and social impact of the EU nuclear sector, providing both a current picture as well as a long-term forecast on the basis of the 3 scenarios assessed in the first study. (author)
[en] In July 2018, Japan adopted the 5th SEP1 (strategic energy plan) and reconfirmed its determination to achieve the 2030 energy mix underpinning Japan’s NDC (nationally determined contribution) aiming at 26% reduction from 2013 by 2030 under the Paris Agreement. In this energy mix, nuclear is to occupy 20-22% of the total power generation in 2030. In the 5th SEP, the role of nuclear was defined as “important base load power source contributing to the stability of long-term energy supply and demand structure”. Nuclear is expected to play a pivotal role for simultaneously 1) restoring energy self-sufficiency to pre-earthquake level, 2) reducing electricity cost and 3) presenting internationally comparable GHG emissions reduction target.
[en] Nuclear energy is poised to play a vital role in a U.S. pathway to decarbonize its energy sector. The ability of nuclear plants to provide large-scale, carbon-free energy at allow hours of the day makes it a vital complement to intermittent sources of non-emitting generation such as wind and solar power. For nuclear energy to fulfil this promise, however, these attributes will need to be valued in the marketplace. Without polices that provide this financial recognition of nuclear’s positive attributes, the economic pressures that have led to plant closures will continue and the challenge of decarbonization will become more daunting.
[en] Climate changes are the most important environmental challenges issue facing the world nowadays. The important potential contribution of nuclear power to the mitigation of the emission of greenhouse gases and climate changes is and will remain limited and negligible in the foreseeable future. This research investigates the climate changes and the impact of nuclear power generation on climate changes and greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power can contribute to mitigating climate changes and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (author)