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[en] Although the anti-nuclear campaign is partially political, in the sense that it involves some of its leaders in representations and collective choices affecting the general orientation of society, it has not succeeded in becoming a lasting feature of the political spectrum. This is due to partly to the grassroots concept of the anti-nuclear movement which believed that it was possible to stand up against nuclear plant at local level and ignore the real centres of power. It is also due to the fact that the main political and union organisations have not taken responsibility for total opposition to nuclear power in that this calls in question the values of progress and growth to which these organisations are profoundly attached. Lastly, it is due to the political situation; since 1975 and the development of the economic crisis, the nuclear problem is bound to be pushed into the background by the problems of employment, unemployment and the standard of living. (author)
[en] After an overview of some basic issues regarding energy (history, measurement units, world energy consumption, different types of energy, energy demand, energy resources, cost of energy imports), this report proposes an overview of the different new energies, of their means of production, and of their applications. It first addresses solar energies by distinguishing direct solar energy (thermal conversion, thermodynamic conversion, production of electric power with different types of plants, futuristic projects), and energies issued from phenomena resulting from solar activity (wind energy, sea energies, biomass). The second part addresses other sources of new energy by distinguishing those which will be soon exploited (geothermal energy, methane fermentation) or should be later exploited (thermonuclear fusion, hydrogen).
[en] One of the basic problems to be solved because of the energy crisis facing the developed countries, and the EEC in particular, concerns rational energy use. Some of the new forms of energy such as solar energy and optimal treatment of waste from electrical or industrial plants present problems as to low temperature energy resource use. At the same time, a large number of agricultural, industrial, domestic and tertiary sectors have energy needs for which levels do not exceed 150 deg. C and are now covered by high-grade fuel resources such as oil, gas, coal or electricity. As concerns geothermal resources in the EEC, there is a very large potential in about one third of the territory. While only Italy has assured high enthalpy resources, almost all other countries have a low enthalpy potential which can be developed. The study attempts to show the technical and economic feasibility of exploiting resources at between 30 deg. C and 150 deg. C as was begun about ten years ago in France and more recently en Italy, Belgium, W. Germany, Great Britain and Denmark. The study cannot be expected to produce the kind of results which are generally expected from research work. The report surveys geothermal energy in Europe and perspectives for future development and leads to a diagnosis for the geothermal sector. Obstacles and problems can be identified on the basis of experience in France and in other countries