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[en] Firstly I shall address the future of nuclear power world-wide. Secondly, I want to discuss the options open to the industry in the Republic of Korea and how these might develop within a framework of international involvement. Korea, with few indigenous resources, you have increased your energy use by a factor of 10 between 1995 and 1988, through a National energy policy hinged on Nuclear Power. It is not unreasonable to suppose that many countries in the emerging world will wish wish to follow your example. If they were all allowed to satisfy their energy growth through fossil fuels, the best estimates predict exhaustion of these resources within 40 years. Moreover, the effect on the environment would be quite unthinkable
[en] It can be said that the upturn of Korean nuclear power program started in early 70's while future plants for the construction of new nuclear power plants virtually came to a halt in United States since the late 70's. It is projected that power plant systems from combination of nuclear and coal fired types might shift to all coal fired type in U.S., considering the current U.S. trend of construction on the new plants. However, with the depletion of natural resources, it may be desirable to understand the utilization of two competitive utility technologies in terms of invested energy. Presented in this paper is a method of comparing two energy systems in terms of energy investment and a brief result from energy economic analysis of nuclear power plant and coal fired steam power plant to illustrate the methodology. The method of comparison is Net Energy Analysis (NEA). In doing so, Input-Output Analysis (lOA) among industries and commodities is done. Using these information, net energy ratios are calculated and compared. Although NEA does not offer conclusive solution, it can be used as a screening process in decision making
[en] China is facing the challenging problems in both the potential energy resource shortage and the serious environmental pollutions. The author suggests that nuclear energy could play an important role for ensuring the long term energy security in China. The technical problems to be solved for the sustainable development of nuclear energy in China are also discussed and the R and D work in next 20 years are briefly suggested to meet the requirements of nuclear energy development in China
[en] Launched in 1974, it has been since then constantly supported by the successive Governments and was realized through an ambitious program led by the French national utility: EDF, in association with the maker: Fumarate, the fuel cycle industry: Cogema, the R and D organization: Cea, and under close control of the safety and administrative Authorities. It is internationally recognized as an impressive success and is globally rather well accepted by the French population, even if the Chernobyl accident has deeply affected the public opinion about nuclear safety, even with so different conditions than those prevailing at the time in Soviet Union
[en] The most visible portion of the nuclear industry in the United States is its ongoing electrical generation program, in which 109 nuclear plants provide 21% of the nations electrical needs. However, the nuclear industry also includes nuclear medicine, agricultural uses of radiation sources, food irradiation, research, industrial applications of radiation sources, and even nuclear waste clean-up from old facilities and sites. Nuclear proponents need to be far more active in demonstrating to the public the wealth, and breadth, of all of the benefits that accrue from nuclear radiation even beyond the generation of electricity. We should also make known the damage that would be done to everyday lives if we were to lose the nuclear industry. There are certain issues which cut across all nuclear industries: the regulation of nuclear facilities, the disposal of wastes, the provision of isotopes, and the attitude and policy of the U. S. Government. It is necessary to understand these issues in order to formulate a proactive policy and a manner in which to conduct our advocacy of the beneficial uses of nuclear science and technology. The economic benefits, in terms of dollars and jobs, of the nuclear industry in sectors other than the power program are much larger than in the power program, and are not subject to the same hysterical opposition that has affected the power sector for the past twenty years. Moreover, industrial applications of nuclear radiation are so pervasive throughout the U. S. economy that they affect everyone. These applications have much less visibility than the power program, but they have some of the same problems. The non-power nuclear industry dose have its detractors, and, for example, the issue of low-level waste disposal, in particular, cuts across all sectors of the industry -- potentially damaging to a wide-ranging set of economic factors. Headlines seem to indicate that the end of the nuclear industry is at hand. Yet, public opinion polls appear to show that the public is in favor of nuclear applications. The difference is that the detractors scream loudly, while the proponents tend to operate logically and reasonably, assuming that if the public and decision makers are presented with the facts then they will see the light. That philosophy is wrong -- it is far too complacent. We, scientists and technologists, need to be more proactive (and to shout sometimes) in declaring to the public, and decision makers, what items of the economy, what products, what facilities, and what processes would not be available to them if the self-interest groups are allowed to have their way, in further damaging the nuclear industry. We need to show priorities are absent, and because the self-interest groups are not acting in the consumers' or the country's best interests
[en] The future of nuclear power is optimistic, but only if we each learn from our past mistakes - and from each other's past mistakes and take corrective actions. Only if we apply the highest standard of performance to every nuclear activity. I believe meetings such as this are an important forum for exchanging information that can result in improved standards of performance throughout the world.
[en] More and more the Division of Public Information of the IAEA is contacted by journalists and members of the public as well as international groups whenever a nuclear incident or accident occurs or when there is even a rumour of an accident or incident. This has increased with the introduction of the seven step international nuclear event scale INIS of the IAEA. Under the INIS scheme Member States report nuclear events, incidents and accidents to the IAEA. An important purpose of INIS and its seven level severity ranking scale is to help media and the public to comprehend the degree of seriousness of any such events. Please allow me now to present a short overview on the attitudes on nuclear energy and anti-nuclear movements in different countries on the basis of my own experience. I want to point out that it is my own opinion and not that of the International Atomic Energy Agency. At the end of 1992 nuclear power again showed up as a considerable source of electricity production in the world. Overall 425 nuclear power plants were in operation in 28 countries. They provided about 17 percent of the world's electricity, almost as much as the hydropower plants
[en] Nuclear energy has come of age industrially. It offers numerous advantages over other sources of energy, not least among them energy independence, economic competitiveness, environmental protection and safety. And when we speak of safety, we mean safety as it is defined in free market economies, which bears no comparison to safety as it is practiced in the former USSR and other eastern block countries. The high-level radioactive waste generated by our program is, fortunately, low in volume - about 2m3 per year per reactor - and we have demonstrated precise and responsible management of such waste. Those of you who have visited the La Hague plant were able to walk on top of the vitrified waste interim storage vaults, where the waste is stored pending final disposal. Korea, for its part, has embarked upon a nuclear power program of comparable proportions more recently, with, of course, the corresponding benefits of lower electric power costs and lesser atmospheric pollution. Both the safety and the availability of its reactors are excellent. In his last year opening address, MR. Ah Bong-Wh stated Korea's 'future may have to embrace such facets as the assurance of nuclear safety, technical self-reliance, regional cooperation, persistent enforcement of public relations campaign'. Nuclear power is a viable and necessary alternative for industrialized nations which seek a reliable supply of electricity to support economic development, yet which are not themselves rich in natural energy resources. This is the case for both France and Korea. France, like Korea, has no indigenous sources of fossil fuels -- no oil, little coal -- and we have already fully developed our hydro-electric capability. Yet demand for electricity continues to grow: although at a slower pace than the pre-1973 oil crisis high of nearly 10% per year, demand increased by an astounding 16% in 1992 alone, as MR. John K. Chang indicated in his recants comments to the Nuclear Energy Agency. Nuclear power is the only reasonable means of sustaining this kind of growth if we are not to import the lion's share of our energy, exposing ourselves to the whims of an increasingly politicized oil market or to the pollution caused by coal-fired plants
[en] This book explains the comprehension of nuclear energy with making approaches to social science. So it deals with disposal of radiation active waste as an social issue, recognition to nuclear energy of people and understanding of the region and support for the development of the region. It introduces two Anti-nuclear energy movements happened in Anmyondo and Yeongdeok. It reports these two cases approached with the method of social science.