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[en] Solar energy is conceivably the largest source of renewable energy at our disposal, but vital advances are expected to make solar cells economically viable. Biodegradable and flexible solar cells are currently under extensive investigation for environmentally-friendly electronic applications. Biomaterials based solar cell is emerging due to their sustainable, scalable, abundant, renewable, and environmentally-friendly energy production. This review highlights recent research progress in the emerging group of biomaterials and their integration for flexible solar cell devices. The more emphasis is given to the absolute recyclable solar cell technology, processing conditions and optimized processing conditions to produce a high amount of energy. This review briefly describes the recent progress in these classes of material, covering substrates and semiconductors. A prominent demand still exists for a next-generation of flexible, biodegradable and biocompatible solar cell substrate for ultimate energy generation application.
[en] The research objective are: (1) Analyse the capacity needs of the wind energy system based on the parameters of energy requirements, the ability of the inverter, generator capability and the ability of the local wind. (2) Generate a simulate diesel-wind hybrid power plants for Kupang city and every district in Timor island; (3) Generate an optimization of wind-diesel hybrid power plant for Kupang city and districts in Timor island; (4) Generate a scheme wind-diesel hybrid power plant for Kupang city and every district in Timor island. The method used in this research is quantitative method with the approach of simulation, optimization and sensitivity analysis used HOMER application program, i.e.: (1) simulation system of diesel-wind hybrid power plant; (2) optimization system of diesel-win hybrid generator, and (3) the sensitivity analysis system diesel-wind hybrid power plant. Conclusion of this research are: (1) Simulation in Kupang city and districts of Kupang are wind turbines 20 KW with generator capacity of 71.7 KW. Optimization result of wind-energy contribution of only 7% and ideal price of US $ 0.47 to produce wind turbines of 20,000 KWH/yr; (2) Simulation in South Central Timor (TTS) district is wind turbines 3 KW with generator capacity of 11.4 KW. The result of optimization of wind-energy contribution of only 9% and ideal price of US $ 0.525 to produce wind turbines of 1.165 KWH/yr; (3) Simulation in North Central Timor (TTU) district is wind turbines 1 KW with generator capacity of 7.62 KW. Optimization result of wind-energy contribution of only 4% and ideal price of US $ 0.53 to produce wind turbines of 1.150 KWH/yr;(4) Simulation in Belu districts is wind turbines 10 KW with generator capacity of 12.1 KW. Optimization result of wind-energy contribution of only 22% and ideal price of US $ 0.48 to produce wind turbines of 1.210 KWH/yr. (paper)
[en] Main generation area II technically served several plants that Jatiluhur, Saguling and Cirata. The backbone of the generation (slack bus) held by two units supplied by IBT 500/150 kV with a power capacity of each IBT is 500 MVA. One sample is a sub-system supplier Cirata has 13 transmission line connecting the substation 8 (GI) and has a total of 17 150/20 kV transformer with a capacity of 930 MVA, while the existing generation units at 150 kV Cirata subsystem is PLTPb Patuha with a power of 55 MW. Given the large power capacity with the strategic and vital functions of the sub-systems of 150 kV Cirata requires maximum control and optimization so that the distribution of electricity in West Java can be properly maintained. System Reliability of the power system must be maintained in order to supply power from the generator to the consumer to keep going well. In this study, the disorder will be analyzed is the contingency (N-1), a discharge of one of the channels on the system. Then analyzes the current and voltage changes to prepare for system improvements. Repairs are done when the contingency is to release the load (load shedding). Reliability was measured after load shedding in this study is to measure the quality of the voltage on the load side. At the time of the contingency (N-1), a decline below the voltage value SPLN on some rails GI, including rail Cigereleng (124.8 kV to 136.8 kV), rail Lagadar (125.4 kV to 137.1 kV), rail Padalarang (126.1 kV to 137.5 kV), North Bandung rail (125.5kV be 137.3 kV) and rail Cibabat (125.6 kV to 137.2 kV). (paper)
[en] The next generation technologies based on perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are targeted to develop a true low cost, low tech, widely deployable, easily manufactured and reliable photovoltaics. After the extremely fast evolution in the last few years on the laboratory-scale, PSCs power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached over 24%. However, the widespread use of PSCs requires addressing the stability and industrial scale production issues. Carbon based monolithic perovskite solar cells (mPSCs) are one of the most promising candidates for the commercialization of the PSCs. mPSCs possess a unique architectural design and pave an easy way to produce large area and cost-effective fabrication of the PSCs. In this article, recent progress in the field of mPSCs, challenges and strategies for their improvement are briefly reviewed. Also, we focus on the predominant implementations of recent techniques in the fabrication of the mPSCs to improve their performance. This review is intended to serve as a future direction guide for the scientists who are looking forward to developing more reliable, cost-effective and large area PSCs.