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[en] Highlights: • The paper characterizes the economic situation of the sugarcane energy industry in Brazil. • The analysis is based on financial ratios and data from balance sheets. • Cluster and discriminant analysis techniques were used in the evaluation. • The companies were classified into four representative groups of the industry. • The study revealed high heterogeneity among the different companies. - Abstract: This study is intended to characterize the economic and financial status of the sugarcane energy industry in Brazil, providing relevant information for new investors, directors of companies and government to make more appropriate decisions. The data used in the study was obtained from financial statements issued by about 150 plants in the 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 harvest seasons. Following the logic proposed by the approach known as financial ratio analysis, financial indicators were calculated to measure the liquidity, profitability and debt of the plants. A cluster analysis was applied to define representative groups of companies in the 2014/2015 harvest season and a discriminant analysis was used to classify companies in the 2015/2016 crop season. The results showed high heterogeneity in the industry, marked by the presence of four different groups of companies. The first group includes high-liquidity and low-debt units. The fourth group is characterized by companies with high debt, low liquidity and negative operating margins. The two intermediate groups are made up of plants with moderate leverage and liquidity, but with operational performance levels varying from high to low. It should be noted that higher revenues in the 2015/2016 harvest season made it possible to improve the financial performance of the companies, except of those with in the fourth group. The results indicate difficulties to expand production capacity in the short term, but also recovery possibilities in the medium and long term if market conditions are favorable and the institutional framework in the country's fuel industry is lasting and predictable.
[en] When completed, the Greifswald nuclear power plant was to produce almost a quarter of the electricity generated in eastern Germany. However, the nuclear complex was never completed, so that the State Security had to monitor two things: a nuclear power plant and a major construction site. With 24 full-time and more than 200 unofficial employees, the Stasi attempted to keep the largest nuclear plant in the GDR with several thousand workers and employees and immense political and economic importance under control. In its political tasks, military structure and secret police work, the object office of the State Security in the nuclear power plant was a mirror image of the SED secret police as a whole. Its economic activities remained conspicuously pale, its political success doubtful. In individual cases, the Stasi was successful in the sense of its mission in monitoring and prosecuting unpopular workers, employees and applicants for emigration. To this end, it applied political standards that could run counter to the economic interests of the nuclear power plant. As a dubious achievement, the State Security can claim to have been involved in covering up the nuclear risk to the GDR population.
[de]Mit seiner Fertigstellung sollte das Kernkraftwerk Greifswald fast ein Viertel des ostdeutschen Stroms produzieren. Ende der 1960er-Jahre begonnen, ist der nukleare Komplex aber niemals fertiggestellt worden, sodass die Staatssicherheit hier zweierlei zu überwachen hatte: ein Kernkraftwerk und eine Großbaustelle. Mit zuletzt 24 hauptamtlichen und mehr als 200 inoffiziellen Mitarbeitern versuchte die Stasi den größten Nuklearbetrieb der DDR mit mehreren Tausend Arbeitern und Angestellten und immenser politischer und wirtschaftlicher Bedeutung unter Kontrolle zu halten. In ihrer politischen Aufgabenstellung, der militärischen Struktur und der geheimpolizeilichen Arbeit war die Objektdienststelle der Staatssicherheit im Kernkraftwerk ein Spiegelbild der SED-Geheimpolizei insgesamt. Ihre Tätigkeit auf wirtschaftlichem Gebiet blieb auffällig blass, ihre politischen Erfolge zweifelhaft. In Einzelfällen erfolgreich im Sinne ihres Auftrags war die Stasi bei der Überwachung und Verfolgung von missliebigen Arbeitern, Angestellten und Ausreiseantragstellern. Dafür legte sie politische Maßstäbe an, die den wirtschaftlichen Interessen des Kernkraftwerkes zuwiderlaufen konnten. Als zweifelhafte Leistung kann die Staatssicherheit für sich in Anspruch nehmen, an der Vertuschung des nuklearen Risikos gegenüber der DDR-Bevölkerung beteiligt gewesen zu sein.
[en] This report starts from the fact that basic rights and freedoms of economic actors are successfully opposed to basic human rights and to environmental rights, and are applied through international trade and investment agreements and their opaque arbitration mechanisms between States and investors, and also thanks to a lobbying. For example, measures regarding transparency and tax justice have been refused by the French Constitutional Council and the scope of the Hulot bill on the end of hydrocarbon exploitation has been dramatically reduced. This last example is more particularly discussed. Then, the report highlights how rights and freedoms of companies prevail on climate and social justice. The somehow invisible action of lobbies is then described, and the power and complacencies of the French Constitutional Council and more particularly of the State Council are highlighted. The last part discusses how the civil society could be able to develop its empowerment in front of these institutions, notably through a development of transparency regarding lobbying, a guarantee of an actual contradictory examination of issues by these both institutions, and the creation and improvement of new arrangements to control lobbying actions
[en] As shown by this study, subsidies and advantages awarded to nuclear and fossil energies are prevailing in the French energy sector, notably with respect to renewable energies and energy savings. This study indeed aimed at assessing direct and indirect budgetary supports to the different forms of energy in France in order to assess the role of the French State in subsidies, taxing and support to industries. It appears that the support to renewable energies represents only between one and four per cent of that to nuclear energy. The study also notices that pollutions and consequences of accidents are not taken into account, that supports to renewable energies are badly managed, and that the evolution is very slow. After a definition of subsidies and supports, the report addresses different aspects related to renewable energies (R and D, ADEME's intervention, financing support for electrification projects, taxing, tax exemption for biofuels), to electro-nuclear energy (direct and indirect subsidies), to natural gas (R and D, investments of collectivities in gas networks, commercial supports), to coal (subsidies for research, for production and for reconversion, purchases order between EDF and Charbonnages de France, external costs paid by the community), to oil (direct subsidies, indirect subsidies in transports), to actions for the management of energy demand, and to electric power (direct subsidies, power in overseas districts and in Corsica)
[en] As France and Germany are facing the same challenges (climate change, tensions on the fossil resource markets, necessity to reduce environmental risks and accident risks, to maintain competitiveness, reduction of energy dependence, and so on), the authors propose a comparison which outlines similarities in their projects of transition and complementarities in their evolving energy systems, as well as lessons learned from past experiences and future challenges to be faced. Thus they describe the French and German situations regarding their respective transition policy (energy transition and Energiewende) and their objectives (in terms of emissions, of share of renewable energies, of consumption reduction by 2020, 2030 and 2050). They discuss the main divergence between both countries: the nuclear issue. They finally discuss which aspects of the French and German transitions could be applied at a European level, and then notice the difficult road to a Europe of energy
[en] This publication presents and comments the content of a draft bill on energy transition, and also proposes a set of amendments. Thus, it first proposes an overview of State objectives and priorities, describes how the elaboration and structure of the law have been designed, and how it addresses the implementation of a circular economy. In the second part, stakes of the governance of energy transition at the national and territorial levels are discussed. The stakes of a new energy mix and of energy usages are then addressed, and more particularly in transports, in the built environment, and in the development of renewable energies. The last part describes how amendments have been elaborated. These amendments more particularly concern the governance (decentralisation and planning), energy poverty (building renovation, notably for the poorest households), renewable energies (support and development), and circular economy (elaboration of an operational definition)
[en] The author proposes an analysis and a discussion of the scope, range and possible impacts of the Paris Agreement (COP21). He outlines the strong universal character of the agreement scope, and the legal nature of the commitments. He comments the importance of the initiated momentum which he considers as one of the most important success of the COP21. Then, he briefly discusses the precise content of the Agreement and of the Decision, and their predictable impact, notably for objectives on the long term and the reviewing of national commitments, for the implementation of a transparency and assessment arrangement. He outlines some remaining ambiguities regarding financing arrangements, and some weakness or lack of statement regarding the evolution of the development mode. He finally indicates some issues which are not present in the Agreement: the situation before 2020, the tax on financial transactions, the trajectory to be followed for the reduction of the use of fossil energies and the evolution of their prices
[en] This document reports the debate between the chairman of Global Chance and a representative of the International Energy Agency. It reproduces extracts of articles published by these authors in which they answer each other about their opinion on the main threat for climate. The first one, based on IPCC studies, states that methane is the main threat, whereas the second one states that carbonated energies are the main problem. They both criticise the other's opinion
[en] This study dissects a policy failure that is often overlooked: Nuclear energy policy in the US and Germany fell short of the goals it set itself at an early stage of deployment. Technological expansion in both countries came to a halt before the nuclear accidents in Harrisburg and Chernobyl. The longitudinal analysis employed here examines the evolution of nuclear energy policies in those countries between 1945 and 2016. It illuminates how, in both cases, policy subsystems, which were set up to promote and protect the technology, collapsed. This study uses Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET) as an explanatory framework, which gives the reader an idea of how policies change over time. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of PET and provides a historically updated view on recent developments like the 'nuclear renaissance' in the US and the phasing-out of nuclear power in Germany.