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[en] World energy demand is increasing and non-renewable resources are decreasing by exponentially putting a huge burden on the energy sector specifically on the oil and gas industry. To overcome these challenges, renewable energy is the best option with production optimization in the oil and gas sector. However, among all renewable energies, geothermal is the most suitable energy due to its sustainability and presence around the clock. Moreover, there are three types of wells for harnessing geothermal energy such as: producing oil and gas well, abandoned oil and gas wells and geopressured brine well with dissolved gas. In this research study, the author’s considers the technical aspects of electricity generation through oil and gas wells. The power capacity of these wells is determined by the production rate of the well mass flow (m) and temperature (T) of these wells. The main factors that control the wellhead temperature are mass flow rate and formation temperature. Our assessment of gas-producing well in the Kandhkot region showed the wellhead temperature of the produced fluid is too low, compared to ambient temperature for commercial generation of geothermal power. In our work, a conceptual design system to produce power from produced gas by using Solid Works Software is proposed and we have found some positive results. Seven well from the Kandhkot gas field were selected with different mass flow rates and negligible wellhead temperature difference. Author’s found the minimum power net output 21kW at the gas mass flow rate of 0.098504 kg/s with 7.5% thermal efficiency and maximum net output 27.5 kW at gas mass flow rate of 4.102524 kg/s with 10% thermal efficiency. The overall net output power produced from seven well is 174kW and can supply to local communities. (author)
[en] Energy is considered as a vital sign of any country. The energy resource of any country is governed by their owned resources either through fossiliferous or alternative/renewable energy reserves. Due to depleting reserves of fossil fuel, countries including Pakistan are now focusing and converting themselves on renewable energy sources. Out of the different renewable sources, Hydel Power is among those indigenous sources which are considered as cheap, efficient and environmentally friendly. Pakistan is among those countries, which have the largest irrigation system which portrays a huge hydel potential within it. Government of Pakistan has also identified different potential sites where Hydel Energy can be obtained. However, apart from the recognized potential sites, there are still many streams/canals/ drains that can also be studied for their hydro potential and estimated generation capacity using mini/micro hydropower plant. Different studies have been carried out in calculating the energy potential of canals. In this paper, Hydropower Potential (HPP) of a Drainage System that is Left Bank Outfall Drain (LBOD), at Sindh has been calculated using field-based data parameters such as hydraulic depth, the width of the canal and flow velocity. Other studies were also reviewed for data collection. Based on the calculated HPP, five types of turbines with their benefits have been identified and proposed. This study concludes that different locations of LBOD can be considered for setting up a micro hydropower plant; however, a vertical head through extended penstock or weir needs to be considered for an effective hydropotential. (author)
[en] INPRO is focused on the sustainability and sustainable development of nuclear energy systems. It works cooperatively and innovatively in a crosscutting and forward-looking approach, integrating into other Agency departments and programmes to achieve success. Over 20 years, INPRO has built strong relationships with IAEA Member States, bringing together countries with established nuclear power programmes and industries as well as those embarking on the use of nuclear power. We thank the Member States for all their support. This includes funding, providing venues for events such as our Dialogue Forums, and for sharing their expertise in the many fine Cost Free Experts who have worked in INPRO over the last two decades. INPRO's task is to identify opportunities for improvement in advanced nuclear concepts and to provide pathways to Member States for addressing future challenges in the broad areas of technology, infrastructure, policy or institutional approaches. Since 2010, INPRO has sponsored 17 Dialogue Forums to build partnerships, raise key issues and create an environment where creative and fruitful solutions can be achieved. The various dialogue topics have included, among others: the deployment of SMRs, Generation IV reactor concepts, nuclear supply chains, and the non-electric applications of nuclear energy. All of them support the UN Sustainable Development and climate change goals as well as the future sustainability of nuclear power.
[en] The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had significant impacts on the global economy and energy sector. It has also underlined the importance of electricity reliability and resilience during major disruptions. With governments considering a broad range of options for economic recovery and job creation, it is becoming increasingly clear that stimulus packages have the opportunity to support energy systems that both fulfil these criteria while meeting long-term environmental goals and energy security. The NEA is examining the regulatory and operational impacts of the crisis, and working closely with its members to enable exchanges of policy approaches and best practices around the world. As part of these efforts, the NEA has issued this policy brief to explore the role that nuclear energy can play in the post-COVID-19 recovery, whilst also supporting the path towards a truly sustainable and environmentally responsible energy future. The key messages of this policy brief are the following: - Electricity security is an essential public need, at the same level as food security and access to health care. - Nuclear energy is a key contributor to electricity security and already contributes positively to building a low-carbon resilient infrastructure at the plant and system levels. - Nuclear energy, both new nuclear projects and the long-term operation of existing reactors, can play a key role in the post-COVID-19 economic recovery efforts by boosting economic growth in the short term, while supporting, in a cost-effective manner, the development of a low-carbon resilient electricity infrastructure in the long term
[en] There is a process in Ukraine on updating its first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to Paris Agreement. The first NDC or Intended Nationally Determined Contribution , approved by the Government of Ukraine on 16th September 2015, stipulates that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2030 will not exceed 60% of 1990 level. One of the main objectives of the above-mentioned NDC updating process is to enhance its mitigation ambition in the light of current GHG emissions profiles, abilities and the strong need for economic recovery. According to the data from the last reviewed Ukraine’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2015 the total GHG emissions (without land use, land use change and forestry) in 2015 accounted for 323 Mt CO2-eq. or 33,6% of 1990 level which is the lowest since 1990 due to economic slump in 2014-2015. Therein GHG emissions when producing in 2015 of 157,2 TWh electricity accounted for 58,5 Mt CO2-eq. or 372 kg CO2-eq./MWh that is about 25% less than worldwide average. This is due to the large role of nuclear power in electricity generation sector of Ukraine. The share of nuclear energy in total annual volumes of electricity production increased on about 10% during 2012-2017 and reached its peak level in 2015.
[en] Climate change has become one of the global phenomenon which needs much attention. The most vulnerable is the developing countries hence measures should be put in place to reduce its vulnerability. Like many other developing countries, Ghana recognizes its vulnerability to climate risk and the challenges climate change present for economic development. Ghana’s response to climate change has been very good, when measured by signature and in documentation to meet the external requirements of the international architecture. Ghana has ratified the three main Rio conventions and the Kyoto protocols and has taken steps to meet its obligations under this convention, in particular, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
[en] The evaluation of the electricity sector shows that Lebanon needs necessarily an effective energy transition to a secure energy supply over the long term while at the same time addressing the climate change commitments by the penetration of low-carbon energy sources including nuclear energy, which is out of consideration in Lebanon, to maintain a sustainable baseload power. Due to the economic situation, weak national power grid, topographic characteristics and demographic distribution, the marine-based small modular reactors (SMRs) would be a suitable technology for Lebanon. Additionally, a land-based low-power multi-units SMR design such as NuScale seems to be an ideal technology fitting the characteristics and performance of the Lebanese small grid. It is found that two SMR-NuScale stations might replace 19 of the 23 operating fossil fuel power units due to their aging, low capacity factors and high production cost of electricity, and hence reduce 66% of the CO2eq. emissions caused by electricity generation. (author)
[en] Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are often operated as a base load supplier of electricity because they are thought to be more efficient operated as such. The adjustment to daily or seasonal demand of electricity can be done with another sources of power generation, often because nuclear energy contribution to the energy mix is relatively small. But if NPPs are to be operated as major supplier of electricity in an energy mix, it needs more maneuvering capabilities. Some NPPs are capable of quick load-following, but there might be methods that is more economic and environmentally friendly. This paper will briefly discuss qualitatively different methods of power generation/storage/usage that can be coupled with NPPs for load following purposes based on their environmental impact, economic, and technological readiness aspect. (author)
[en] In its Communication “A Clean Planet for all”, the European Commission outlines the European Union strategic long-term vision for reaching a climate-neutral economy by 2050 and confirms that nuclear will form the backbone of a carbon-free European power system, together with renewables. But is the EU ambitious enough in reaching the 2050 targets? Is the current legislation suitable for the transition to a carbon free power system? What would be the role of the nuclear sector in the long term? This paper aims at analysing the current situation and the vision of the European nuclear sector from an industry perspective and will try to bring responses to the questions above. This perspective will be based on the results of 2 studies recently commissioned by FORATOM, the trade association of the European nuclear industry. The first one2, released in November 2018, models future energy output based on different reports available for Europe, and proposes three nuclear scenarios (low– no long term operation of the existing nuclear fleet and no new build; medium – long term operation of the existing nuclear fleet but limited number of new build; and high - long term operation of the existing nuclear fleet and extensive new build program). It furthermore analyses the impact of these scenarios on security of supply, sustainability and economic aspects. The second study, released in April 2019, analyses the economic and social impact of the EU nuclear sector, providing both a current picture as well as a long-term forecast on the basis of the 3 scenarios assessed in the first study. (author)
[en] In July 2018, Japan adopted the 5th SEP1 (strategic energy plan) and reconfirmed its determination to achieve the 2030 energy mix underpinning Japan’s NDC (nationally determined contribution) aiming at 26% reduction from 2013 by 2030 under the Paris Agreement. In this energy mix, nuclear is to occupy 20-22% of the total power generation in 2030. In the 5th SEP, the role of nuclear was defined as “important base load power source contributing to the stability of long-term energy supply and demand structure”. Nuclear is expected to play a pivotal role for simultaneously 1) restoring energy self-sufficiency to pre-earthquake level, 2) reducing electricity cost and 3) presenting internationally comparable GHG emissions reduction target.