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[en] When will atomic power start to play its part in earnest; that is, when will a significant fraction of new power plants be based on nuclear systems? This is in my opinion the key question today. It is still early to try to give a definitive answer, but recent developments in the nuclear power field now make it still more urgent to give this question thorough consideration. In order to do so it is necessary to make a survey of the need for power as it exists now and as it is likely to develop in the future; one must also find out what possibilities exist to meet this demand from known energy reserves or such reserves as can be expected to be available in the future. Such a survey made on a global basis will give a balanced picture, but the conclusions obtained in such a way cannot, of course, be applied to individual and local situations. If it were to be proved that our reserves will be insufficient, nuclear power would clearly seem to have an important role in meeting the need, but it is at the same time of the utmost importance to find out if energy reserves hidden in the world's resources of uranium and of thorium are adequate or if technological development can make them so
[en] A nuclear power expert of the International Atomic Energy Agency, who was sent to El Salvador at the request of that country's Government, has recommended that the possibility of using nuclear energy as a competitive source of power generation in El Salvador should be kept under review and given a more serious study within the next few years. The report submitted by the expert after his mission to El Salvador contains a preliminary assessment of the prospects of nuclear power in the country. His main findings are presented
[en] The economic advantage of electricity-generating nuclear stations decreases when their size decreases. However, when a counter-pressure turbine is joined on to a reactor and the residual heat can be properly used, it can be shown that fairly low capacity nuclear equipment may compete with conventional equipment under certain realistic enough conditions. The aim of this paper is to define these special conditions under which nuclear energy can be profitable. They are connected with the location and the general economic environment of the station, the pattern of the electricity and heat demands it must meet, the level of fuel and specific capital costs, nuclear and conventional. These conditions entail certain technical and economic specifications for the reactors used in this way otherwise they are unlikely to be competitive. In addition, these results are referred to the potential steam and electricity market, which leads us to examine certain uses for the heat generated by double purpose power stations; for example, to supply combined industrial plants, various types of town heating and for removal of salt from sea water. (authors)
[fr]L'interet economique de centrales nucleaires productrices d'electricite decroit lorsque la puissance decroit. Cependant, lorsqu'on associe une turbine a contrepression a un reacteur et qu'il est possible d'utiliser dans de bonnes conditions la chaleur residuelle, on peut montrer que dans certaines conditions assez realistes, des equipements nucleaires d'une puissance unitaire peu elevee peuvent etre competitifs avec des equipements conventionnels. Cette communication a donc pour but de mettre en evidence quelles sont ces conditions particulieres de rentabilite de l'energie nucleaire. Elles sont liees a la localisation de la centrale et a son contexte economique general, a la structure de la demande d'energie electrique et thermique a laquelle elle doit satisfaire, au niveau des couts des combustibles et des investissements specifiques nucleaires et classiques. Ces conditions de rentabilite conduisent a admettre pour les reacteurs ainsi utilises certaines caracteristiques techniques et economiques hors desquelles la competition est improbable. On situe, d'autre part, ces resultats par rapport au marche potentiel de la vapeur et de l'electricite et on est ainsi conduit a examiner certaines utilisations de la chaleur des centrales mixtes telles que l'alimentation de complexes industriels, de divers types de chauffage urbain ou du dessalement des eaux de mer. (auteurs)
[en] A report on nuclear power prospects in the Philippines, recently published by IAEA, analyzes the prospects for installing late in the 1960's a relatively large nuclear power plant in the electric power grid which serves a major part of the Island of Luzon. It concludes that such a plant might be economically competitive over its lifetime with a conventional power plant of the same size. Accordingly, the report recommends steps which the Philippine authorities might take if they wish to pursue the matter further
[en] On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the conducting of the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and following development of nuclear reactors, the article reviews the work and scientific development behind this achievement. The impact of atomic energy on economics, benefits of nuclear reactors for electricity production and the by-product - radio isotopes, used in different areas such as industry, medicine, agriculture etc. are pointed out
[en] Four recent estimates of the fossil fuel resources in the United States are used in the Report on Civilian Nuclear Power. They are not entirely independent estimates and, in particular, three of the estimates of coal resources have as their basis the data in 'Coal Reserves of the United States - A Progress Report, January 1, 1960,' Geological Survey Bulletin 1136. The total energy content of the various fossil fuel resources remaining in the United States as given by these estimates has been summarized.
[en] During the last regular session of the IAEA General Conference, the Agency organized, on 20 September 1962, a public meeting at which leading personalities in the national atomic energy programmes of six Member States described some of the important aspects of these programmes, especially in the field of nuclear power. The speakers were Professor V.S. Emelyanov, Deputy Chairman, State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy, USSR; Dr. G.C. Laurence, President, Atomic Energy Control Board, Canada; Sir Roger Makins, Chairman, Atomic Energy Authority, United Kingdom; Professor Francis Perrin, High Commissioner, Atomic Energy Commission, France; Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission, USA; Dr. I.H. Usmani, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission, Pakistan
[en] A wide variety of projects for the provision of experts and equipment to 32 countries has been approved by the IAEA Board of Governors for 1964. Further work is being financed under the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance; altogether, the services of about 100 experts in the field are called for, in addition to those who are still at work on earlier assignments. The estimated cost of the Agency's 1964 programme is $804 600, of which $459 200 is for the services of experts, and $345 400 for the provision of equipment and supplies. In addition, $513 500 is being allocated for EPTA programmes. It is becoming increasingly difficult, however, for the Agency to meet the growing number of requests and lack of finance may prevent its programme from being carried out in full. Many of these requests come from newly independent countries which have become Member States, and which seek assistance in developing national atomic energy programmes. In addition, numerous research reactors and radioisotope laboratories are being built or have recently been completed under bilateral arrangements which are normally limited to the period of construction. Most of these new centres then require some form of assistance in their programmes of research and training. Such a group could help the new centres with the technical aspects of the programme, and could also be helpful in furthering regional collaboration. There is evidently no lack of local talent and initiative in the regions where these meetings have been held. Given the lead, they should be able to organize a more fruitful utilization of research facilities, with the Agency supplementing local effort by acting as a clearing-house for information and assistance, on the lines indicated in its long-range plan. The study group meetings are also helping to create greater awareness in the advanced countries about the work and needs of the developing centres. As a result, it may be hoped that the advanced centres will take greater interest in these new centres and establish closer relations with them. One method of achieving this could be through 'sister laboratory' arrangements, - whereby two centres join forces - at first in order to assist the newly established one, but eventually for mutual benefit completed under bilateral arrangements which are normally limited to the period of construction. Most of these new centres then require some form of assistance in their programmes of research and training. The programme outlined below forms a part only of the Agency's work in the field of technical assistance, which includes a number of other closely related activities, such as exchange of visiting professors, provision of fellowships, and organization of regional training courses - the latter often involving the provision of equipment. All these matters are now being administered by the Agency's Department of Technical Assistance. The projects approved by the Board for this year cover a fairly wide range of topics - from raw materials prospecting and treatment to reactor construction, and from use of radioisotopes in fisheries research to their use in medicine.
[en] Ten years have elapsed since the world's first nuclear power station began to supply electricity in Russia, and this in turn marked the end of a twelve year stage following the first controlled nuclear chain reaction at Chicago. These periods mark major stages in the development of atomic energy from the realm of abstract ideas to that of everyday industrial application. They followed a period of fundamental research and laboratory work, culminating in Enrico Fermi's demonstration of a system whereby the forces of the atom could be brought under control. Then it was necessary to find ways and means of using the chain reaction for practical purposes and on an industrial scale. And after this had been shown in 1954 to be technically possible, it had still to be developed into an economic process. The nuclear power station has proved itself from the technical and engineering standpoint. The third phase of development has been to bring it to the stage of being economically competitive with alternative sources of energy, and it would appear that we are now reaching that goal - though more slowly than had been envisaged ten years ago