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[en] The success of the Paris Agreement in rallying the world to take collective action against climate change and global warming has highlighted the stark challenge that lays ahead: Humankind must achieve a net zero carbon emissions target by the second half of this century. If the goal of keeping warming within 2 deg. C is to be met, all countries will have to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 30% more than the amount that was pledged in the run-up to the Paris conference in December 2015. This makes the action taken over the next decade absolutely critical in reaching this goal. The fact that affordable fossil fuels are likely to remain readily available is certain to complicate this collective effort even further. Together with the US and China, the European Union will have to go beyond its goal of reducing its emissions by 40% of its 1990 levels by 2030. This means it will have to both lower its consumption of fossil fuels - coal in particular - and create a credible carbon price signal for its economy by establishing a floor price in its Emissions Trading System (ETS) and possibly a European carbon tax. France, for its part, must concentrate on reducing emissions from transport, residential and commercial housing and agriculture as its emissions from electricity generation are already very low. Having brought down its emissions by close to 19% since 1990, France is clearly committed to taking climate action. The economic crisis notwithstanding, this reduction comes mostly from the manufacturing sector and energy production itself. However, if the country is to reach carbon neutrality by the second half of the 21. century without hampering its competitiveness, it will have to rethink the scope and rate of action to be taken. (authors)
[en] 2,9% slide by the GHSP market in the EU between 2009 and 2010. The double whammy dealt by the economic crisis and housing slump has stifled expansion of the ground-source heat pump market in many European countries. The European Union market contracted for the second year running (by 2.9% between 2009 and 2010), and this despite the fact that more than 100 000 units were sold over the twelve-month period, taking the number of installed units past the one million mark
[en] The solid fuel residues, so called CSR, represent a fraction with high Lower Calorific value, with physicochemical characteristics conferring them the capacity to replace usual fuels. These last years, industrial applications seem to develop all over Europe. The present study thus sticks to draw up a panorama of the European situation in 2007. It develops the global regulation and normative context in which this waste processing channel must fit, while waiting for the presentation of the new Framework Directive of Waste during 2008, and the initiatives of certain precursory countries like Italy, Germany and the Netherlands. A scientific and technical inventory is presented being based on concrete cases identified within the Community territory. The study examines in particular a representative sample of 11 countries observed (Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, Netherlands, Finland, Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom) and points out the local context, the layer and the practices developed in the use of this fraction. Finally, the study tries to position the French case in the European overview and highlights certain conditions (success factors, obstacles) allowing the development of CSR channel. Until few time, the CSR channel has increased without established regulation and normative framework. The diversity of the trade names listed through Europe testifies to the absence of common framework. To date, term CSR doesn't exist in European legislation. Only nomenclature NAPFUE (support for the declaration of the emissions in atmosphere) identifies fuels including the CSR. The working group CEN TC 343 (M325 Mandate) indicates that it only acts of solid waste, non made up of biomass, resulting from waste non dangerous and intended to be used in incineration or co-incineration. Regarding to existing European directives, a global tendency for the development of the channel is identified (management of waste, energy, environment). Thus, the objectives of load reduction of fulfilled waste, of increase in the rates of valorization of waste, of environmental protection by reducing the Greenhouse Gas resulting from fossil fuels, are in adequacy with the use of CSR. There is also a debate with the position in the regulation to be given to this fraction, which remains today as a 'waste' and not as a 'product', and to the facilities of development that this change could involve. The regulation which applies to the users of waste is that of the incineration. Although more constraining than for the activity of combustion, it fixes a framework in term of control of the atmospheric emissions. In term of application, the solid fuels of recovery are part of the European work of standardization nowadays in progress. The Technical Committee 343 worked out experimental standards which, although not yet applied by the current users, should be transposed in European standards in order to give the basic guidelines of the processing channel to the producers and the users within Europe. However, some countries like Italy, Germany and the Netherlands have defined for a long time their own standard and take advantage of an inciting regulation for the development of this substitution energy process. As follow, these countries are the most important European producers. If several attempts at census of quantities of CSR produced were carried out, the data remain difficult to reach, in particular inside the industrial sector where however the output is important and with a good quality (industrial waste mono-materials). The data collected on the level of the public sector give indications on the state and the factors of development of channel CSR. The development of the installations of Biological Mechanic Treatment within the framework of the multi-channel diagrams of waste occurring in management often is connected to that of CSR channel. Germany as an example knows a strong evolution of this channel and already built boilers designed for a use of CSR, the demand for these fuels apparently seems higher than the supply. Other countries like Greece, Portugal or Spain did not have developed CSR channel yet, as well on the level of the production as of the use. However, in the majority of the European countries, the cement-manufacturers use to burn fuels derived from waste and sometimes from the CSR. Few industrial boilers and boilers designed for the collective heating turn to the CSR in the most initiating countries (Scandinavian Countries, Germany). The experiments of CSR use in the boilers showing more difficulty to adapt, adapting technically with more difficulty than the furnaces cement-manufacturers, proved that a powerful smoke system treatment is essential and that upstream, the rates of chlorine and of heavy metals present in the composition of the CSR must be reduced to its minimum. In France, the CSR channel is not developed yet even if some cases are listed. Except the use in cement industry, for lack of guaranteed outlet, the potential producers remain still careful. The multichannel installations carrying the CSR load are turned today towards organic valorization process, in agreement with the French regulation which give favour to composting and methanation, without identifying the existence and also becoming of its fraction with high Lower Calorific value. The current debates on the place of energy valorization starting from renewable sources, in particular heat valorization, could reposition this fraction of the waste load
[en] Renewable energy sources (RES) are low-carbon energies available right within our borders, and as such can be of great value in addressing the challenges of climate change and energy security. In 2014, renewable energies accounted for 14.6% of France's gross final energy consumption. The French Energy Transition Act for Green Growth sets renewables targets of 23% and 32% as a share of gross final energy consumption by 2020 and 2030, respectively. However, renewable energies are still more costly than conventional energies. A significant share of this additional cost is borne by energy consumers, particularly in the form of energy taxation and biofuels blending obligations. Public aid is also provided to support heat production from renewable energy sources (RES-H). The two most significant aids available today are the Energy Transition Tax Credit (CITE) and the Heat Fund. Comparing the various types of renewable energies shows sharp disparities in terms of the cost of avoiding one tonne of CO_2, which ranges from euros 59 to more than euros 500 for electricity production it follows that the cost of the energy transition is likely to vary significantly depending on which renewable energy sources are pushed to the fore. The combustion of biomass for heat production appears to offer an economically efficient way to reduce CO_2 emissions. Of the various renewable technologies available for the production of electricity (with the exception of hydropower, which was excluded from the scope of this study), onshore wind power is the least costly
[en] The 'great debate on energy transition' launched by the French government in response to the Copenhagen environmental conference is arousing considerable interest and has captured the attention of the media. What is now on the agenda is no longer action on climate change, but energy transition, of which the climate seems to be only one of the components. This semantic drift, seen abroad as well as in France, is not innocuous: the concept of variable geometry can in fact justify policy orientations and strategies that turn their back on the issue of climate change. It is urgent to define more rigorously what is referred to as energy transition and what type of energy transition one wants to implement. The implications are important for decision-making, as shown by the issue of shale gas, which is used here as an illustration. (author)
[en] The decline in CO2 emissions from road vehicles is essential to the sustainable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. At the global level, the transport sector represents a 23% of total greenhouse gas emissions. In France, this sector plays a comparatively greater role; in 2014 it was responsible for 28.5% of greenhouse gas emissions, making it the largest emitter, far ahead of the agriculture (17%) and residential/tertiary (16%) sectors. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector, solutions depend on the development of new engine technologies, biofuels, new fuels and zero-carbon alternative energies. In addition to lowering greenhouse gas emissions, these solutions provide additional benefits, such as improving local air quality (especially in the case of electric vehicles) and reducing oil imports. (authors)
[en] The wholesale markets observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas in France. This observatory is updated on a quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). A French version is also available. The first part of the report summarizes the highlights of the quarter. The indicators (main dates, key figures and Figures) are detailed in the second part.
[en] The energy efficiency in buildings is generally the first sector to be targeted in order to achieve a massive reduction in energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases. This sector is a priority in French energy and climate policy. An important program to reduce energy consumption in buildings is currently being implemented within the framework of the 'Grenelle Environment' (Environmental Round Table). In a rapidly expanding sector, efforts at a national level have enabled France to offer a high quality and a dynamic range of products and services. To showcase, this brochure presents a summary of French expertise in the field of energy efficiency in buildings: offers from private companies, the public policy framework, measures to support Research and Development, innovation and training etc. This brochure is part of a published collection of themed brochures aimed at presenting French products and services in the Eco-Technologies sector, in particular the renewable energy. (author)
[en] Overland transport of passengers and goods is primarily accomplished using road vehicles, with the following consequences: - the place of these vehicles in our society is such that it can be described as a society largely built around and for cars, - these vehicles are manufactured in such a way as to propose very large series of products, at an optimal cost for the stakeholders, in particular car manufacturers and parts suppliers, who operate on a global scale. This type of development now runs the risk of reaching its limits due to its generalisation around the world and its impact on global warming. The threats to society are seen in: - a very strong resistance to controlling, let alone cutting back CO2 emissions from transport in developed countries, - sharply rising CO2 emissions in this sector, most notably on a global scale, with the growth of vehicle fleets (passenger cars in particular) in emerging-economy countries, - a nearly total dependence on fossil fuels, especially petroleum. Governments engaged in the fight against the greenhouse effect face a difficult challenge that requires solutions to widely varying problems: - environmental issues (for example forthcoming regulations for pollutants and CO2, modal transfer policies, mobility management policies), - economic issues: the large proportion of motor industry jobs in industrial employment or the economic models for alternative solutions (funding of public transport, urban planning, deployment of electrical recharging stations, etc.), - regulatory issues tied to our car-aligned transport system (outlying urban areas deprived of public transport, security requirements, etc.), - the historic place occupied by cars in our cultural imagery, in which cars are linked to the acquisition of independence, freedom, power, etc. In order to develop technological innovations for improving the greenhouse gas emissions report in a macro-economically difficult context, some industrialists have committed to alliance and unification mechanisms, therefore positioning themselves as key stakeholders in terms of members, solutions or systems for the electrification of automotive traction. Indeed, industrial stakeholders are experiencing significant changes which should be supported. These developments are led by the emergence of new growth models involving: - on the one hand the creation of technological innovations targeting the creation of additional functions for vehicles, - on the other hand the development of added values via mobility service offers to meet new needs expressed in terms of travel. Moreover, support from the State, in particular via the Research Demonstrator Fund, has led to experiments with innovative concepts for components and advanced drive systems. Today, these technological demonstrations must move on to the pre-industrialisation phase so as to assess their suitability to the current market developments or to test their capacity to trigger developments within the market. The Future Investments Vehicle of the Future program will cross this threshold for industrialising these new clean, energy-saving technologies by its use of: - the progress made by the Research Demonstrator Fund and feasibility demonstrations performed on fully or partially electrified vehicles, - the actions undertaken in terms of new mobility and services via the CEI 'Mobility: daily passenger transport and final routing of goods' within the scope of the Future Investments program.
[en] A key player in the energy transition, EDF group is an integrated energy company, active in all areas of the business: generation, transmission, distribution, trading, energy supply and energy services. As a global leader in low-carbon energy, the Group has developed a diversified generation mix based on nuclear power, thermal energy, hydropower and other renewable energies. This reference document presents: 1- Presentation of EDF group (History and development of the Company; Organisation of the Group; Group strategy; Description of the Group's activities; Legislative and regulatory environment; Research and development, patents and licences; Commercial properties); 2 - Risk factors and control framework (Risks to which the Group is exposed; Control of Group risks and activities; Dependency factors; Legal proceedings and arbitration; Insurance); 3 - Environmental and societal information - human resources (EDF's commitments in the area of sustainable development; EDF's Corporate Social Responsibility Goals; Other areas of the sustainable development policy; Further human resources considerations; Ethics, compliance, tax transparency; Sponsorship; Non-financial rating; Appendices and correspondence tables; Reporting system and methodology; Report by one of the Statutory Auditors, appointed as independent third party); 4 - Corporate governance (Corporate Governance Code; Members and functioning of the Board of Directors; Bodies created by Executive Management; Conflicts of interest, absence of convictions of the members of the administrative bodies and Executive Management, contracts for services; Share-holding by Directors and trading in EDF securities by corporate officers and executives; Compensation and benefits; Report by the Statutory Auditors, prepared in accordance with Article L. 225-235 of the French Commercial Code, on the Report of the Board of Directors on Corporate Governance); 5 - The group's performance in 2018 and financial outlook (Operating and financial review; Subsequent events; Changes in market prices in January and February 2019; Outlook); 6 - Financial statements (Consolidated financial statements; Statutory Auditors' Report on the consolidated financial statements; Financial statements; Statutory Auditors' Report on the financial statements; Table of results for the last five fiscal years; Dividend policy; Significant change in the financial or trading position; Information relating to the allocation of funds raised through Green Bonds issued by EDF); 7 - General information about the company and its capital (General information about the Company; Incorporation documents and articles of association; Information regarding capital and share ownership; Market for the Company's shares; Related-party transactions; Material contracts); 8 - Additional information (Person responsible for the Reference Document and the Certification; Auditors - Statutory Auditors; Documents available to the public - LEI; Financial communication calendar; Concordance tables; Glossary).