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[en] The decline in CO2 emissions from road vehicles is essential to the sustainable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. At the global level, the transport sector represents a 23% of total greenhouse gas emissions. In France, this sector plays a comparatively greater role; in 2014 it was responsible for 28.5% of greenhouse gas emissions, making it the largest emitter, far ahead of the agriculture (17%) and residential/tertiary (16%) sectors. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector, solutions depend on the development of new engine technologies, biofuels, new fuels and zero-carbon alternative energies. In addition to lowering greenhouse gas emissions, these solutions provide additional benefits, such as improving local air quality (especially in the case of electric vehicles) and reducing oil imports. (authors)
[en] The wholesale markets observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas in France. This observatory is updated on a quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). A French version is also available. The first part of the report summarizes the highlights of the quarter. The indicators (main dates, key figures and Figures) are detailed in the second part.
[en] The energy efficiency in buildings is generally the first sector to be targeted in order to achieve a massive reduction in energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases. This sector is a priority in French energy and climate policy. An important program to reduce energy consumption in buildings is currently being implemented within the framework of the 'Grenelle Environment' (Environmental Round Table). In a rapidly expanding sector, efforts at a national level have enabled France to offer a high quality and a dynamic range of products and services. To showcase, this brochure presents a summary of French expertise in the field of energy efficiency in buildings: offers from private companies, the public policy framework, measures to support Research and Development, innovation and training etc. This brochure is part of a published collection of themed brochures aimed at presenting French products and services in the Eco-Technologies sector, in particular the renewable energy. (author)
[en] Overland transport of passengers and goods is primarily accomplished using road vehicles, with the following consequences: - the place of these vehicles in our society is such that it can be described as a society largely built around and for cars, - these vehicles are manufactured in such a way as to propose very large series of products, at an optimal cost for the stakeholders, in particular car manufacturers and parts suppliers, who operate on a global scale. This type of development now runs the risk of reaching its limits due to its generalisation around the world and its impact on global warming. The threats to society are seen in: - a very strong resistance to controlling, let alone cutting back CO2 emissions from transport in developed countries, - sharply rising CO2 emissions in this sector, most notably on a global scale, with the growth of vehicle fleets (passenger cars in particular) in emerging-economy countries, - a nearly total dependence on fossil fuels, especially petroleum. Governments engaged in the fight against the greenhouse effect face a difficult challenge that requires solutions to widely varying problems: - environmental issues (for example forthcoming regulations for pollutants and CO2, modal transfer policies, mobility management policies), - economic issues: the large proportion of motor industry jobs in industrial employment or the economic models for alternative solutions (funding of public transport, urban planning, deployment of electrical recharging stations, etc.), - regulatory issues tied to our car-aligned transport system (outlying urban areas deprived of public transport, security requirements, etc.), - the historic place occupied by cars in our cultural imagery, in which cars are linked to the acquisition of independence, freedom, power, etc. In order to develop technological innovations for improving the greenhouse gas emissions report in a macro-economically difficult context, some industrialists have committed to alliance and unification mechanisms, therefore positioning themselves as key stakeholders in terms of members, solutions or systems for the electrification of automotive traction. Indeed, industrial stakeholders are experiencing significant changes which should be supported. These developments are led by the emergence of new growth models involving: - on the one hand the creation of technological innovations targeting the creation of additional functions for vehicles, - on the other hand the development of added values via mobility service offers to meet new needs expressed in terms of travel. Moreover, support from the State, in particular via the Research Demonstrator Fund, has led to experiments with innovative concepts for components and advanced drive systems. Today, these technological demonstrations must move on to the pre-industrialisation phase so as to assess their suitability to the current market developments or to test their capacity to trigger developments within the market. The Future Investments Vehicle of the Future program will cross this threshold for industrialising these new clean, energy-saving technologies by its use of: - the progress made by the Research Demonstrator Fund and feasibility demonstrations performed on fully or partially electrified vehicles, - the actions undertaken in terms of new mobility and services via the CEI 'Mobility: daily passenger transport and final routing of goods' within the scope of the Future Investments program.
[en] A key player in the energy transition, EDF group is an integrated energy company, active in all areas of the business: generation, transmission, distribution, trading, energy supply and energy services. As a global leader in low-carbon energy, the Group has developed a diversified generation mix based on nuclear power, thermal energy, hydropower and other renewable energies. This reference document presents: 1- Presentation of EDF group (History and development of the Company; Organisation of the Group; Group strategy; Description of the Group's activities; Legislative and regulatory environment; Research and development, patents and licences; Commercial properties); 2 - Risk factors and control framework (Risks to which the Group is exposed; Control of Group risks and activities; Dependency factors; Legal proceedings and arbitration; Insurance); 3 - Environmental and societal information - human resources (EDF's commitments in the area of sustainable development; EDF's Corporate Social Responsibility Goals; Other areas of the sustainable development policy; Further human resources considerations; Ethics, compliance, tax transparency; Sponsorship; Non-financial rating; Appendices and correspondence tables; Reporting system and methodology; Report by one of the Statutory Auditors, appointed as independent third party); 4 - Corporate governance (Corporate Governance Code; Members and functioning of the Board of Directors; Bodies created by Executive Management; Conflicts of interest, absence of convictions of the members of the administrative bodies and Executive Management, contracts for services; Share-holding by Directors and trading in EDF securities by corporate officers and executives; Compensation and benefits; Report by the Statutory Auditors, prepared in accordance with Article L. 225-235 of the French Commercial Code, on the Report of the Board of Directors on Corporate Governance); 5 - The group's performance in 2018 and financial outlook (Operating and financial review; Subsequent events; Changes in market prices in January and February 2019; Outlook); 6 - Financial statements (Consolidated financial statements; Statutory Auditors' Report on the consolidated financial statements; Financial statements; Statutory Auditors' Report on the financial statements; Table of results for the last five fiscal years; Dividend policy; Significant change in the financial or trading position; Information relating to the allocation of funds raised through Green Bonds issued by EDF); 7 - General information about the company and its capital (General information about the Company; Incorporation documents and articles of association; Information regarding capital and share ownership; Market for the Company's shares; Related-party transactions; Material contracts); 8 - Additional information (Person responsible for the Reference Document and the Certification; Auditors - Statutory Auditors; Documents available to the public - LEI; Financial communication calendar; Concordance tables; Glossary).
[en] The EDF Group brings together all electricity businesses, from generation to trading and networks. It is also a key player on the natural gas market. The Group delivers low-carbon solutions to its customers, reconciling economic development and climate protection. The leader in France and the UK, active in many European countries, and an industrial operator in Asia and America, the Group is recognized worldwide as a leading quality public service energy provider. This brochure summarises in few pages the group's profile: key financial figures, nuclear, fossil-fired and renewable power generation, human resources, global presence, sales and marketing, networks, innovation in electric generation/consumption and the related challenges
[en] The EDF Group brings together all electricity businesses, from generation to trading and networks. It is also a key player on the natural gas market. The Group delivers low-carbon solutions to its customers, reconciling economic development and climate protection. The leader in France and the UK, active in many European countries, and an industrial operator in Asia and America, the Group is recognized worldwide as a leading quality public service energy provider. This document brings together: the activity report of the Group (positions in Europe, industrial capabilities, business, finance, energy mix, innovation, customer and public service, new recruits, development of local economies, secure energy supplies and electricity systems, de-carbonised economy), the Group's profile and performance (key figures, results and investments, corporate responsibility, governance, operations around the world, other international activities and businesses, environmental and social indicators), the financial report (Consolidated financial statements, Statutory Auditors' report, Management report, Report by the Chairman of the Board of directors), the Group's sustainable development indicators (economic, environmental and social responsibilities). English and French versions complement each other
[en] Climate change is the greatest challenge facing the world in the 21. Century. After a period of growing awareness, things are now starting to change. Citizens are beginning to make their voice heard, for example with the climate marches involving millions of people worldwide. Companies and regions are stepping up their initiatives with solutions - often very localised - to get the energy transition underway, which are having tangible and replicable results. Everywhere, it is becoming clear that we can lower our carbon footprint and care for the environment. EDF, is also taking positive action. As producers of low-carbon electricity, and providers of very low-carbon solutions to customers and regions, EDF is developing products so that everyone can be part of the energy transition, in their own lives, by adopting virtuous behaviour at home, at work, and on the move. EDF is helping new forms of mobility and new ways of producing and consuming electricity to emerge. Electricity can be a vector for sustainable growth and well-being. For EDF, combating climate change requires a two-pronged approach: energy efficiency and low-carbon energy. To achieve these goals, the first solution is to develop low-carbon electricity to replace the fossil fuels used by consumers, households and industry. This will be backed by other solutions, such as renewable heat. This belief forms the foundation of EDF's strategy, which is built around three aspects: innovation serving customers, low-carbon electricity and international expansion. This is perfectly consistent with the focus of the multi-year energy programme, which confirms that France will place greater emphasis on low-carbon electricity in which renewables will be increasingly present alongside a strong base of nuclear power. These clear signals allow EDF to roll out its own climate strategy entirely consistent with the country's targets. This brochure presents EDF's strategy to become an efficient and responsible electricity company championing low-carbon growth: means helping customers to consume less and better, means eradicating CO2, means promoting EDF's low-carbon model
[en] The political process introduced by COP21 has enabled a new avenue for multilateral cooperation on climate action. This new process focuses largely on cooperation and inclusivity to encourage all actors, public and private, to commit and act for the climate. In contrast to simply sharing the burden of emissions reduction effort, this dynamic encourages actors to explore and capitalized on benefits and co-benefits of climate action. Overall, this new approach moves away from the constrained climate framework advocated by the Kyoto Protocol, and as a result has encouraged an unprecedented level of climate commitment from both States and non-state actors. The Paris Agreement sets the objective to develop climate-resilience and reach net-zero anthropogenic GHG emissions by the end of the 21. century. While such a cooperative approach of the climate political multilateralism cannot guarantee the achievement of the long-term climate goals, it does create a dynamic that could catalyze the necessary climate action. Thus, the credibility of this process to achieve results that are consistent with the long-term goals established by the Paris Agreement will depend on the capacity of actors to transform ambitions into concrete actions which can be strengthened over time. A stringent transparency process will be necessary to assess the compatibility of all commitments with long-term goals as well as to identify potential avenues to achieve those objectives. The role to coordinate and communicate on climate actions will be performed by the UNFCCC, the COP Presidencies and their partners as well as the wider international academic community. Meanwhile, the UNFCCC will also maintain a regulatory framework that provides visibility on the actions undertaken by Parties. This new trans-national approach of climate governance also relies on (i) multiple cooperative frameworks to accelerate sharing of best practices and afford access to low-carbon solutions for all Parties and actors, and (ii) a stronger 'peer-pressure' system to maintain and enhance existing commitments and actions from all stakeholders. (authors)
[en] This scoping report aims to improve the understanding of the role played by credit lines in enhancing the access to finance for green investment projects. To date, most research on climate finance focuses on developing 'innovative' financial instruments. This study investigates how a somewhat 'classic' instrument is being used in innovative ways. Indeed, Public Financial Institutions (PFIs) have extended credit lines to Local Financial Institutions (LFIs) for subsequent on-lending to end-borrowers for many years. More recently, PFIs have started to tailor this product to support 'green lending', i.e. lending to green projects, including renewable energy, energy and resource efficiency, sustainable transport, waste management, and in some cases climate change resilience (adaptation). These tailored credit lines are referred to as 'Green Credit Lines (GCLs)' throughout this report. This scoping study aims at identifying the opportunities and the challenges related to the deployment of GCLs by PFIs to support the low-carbon climate-resilient transition in developing countries. The first part of this report summarizes the market barriers that inhibit green lending in developing countries. Second, diverse characteristics and types of GCLs are described and their current uses by major PFIs are presented. Third, the conceptual advantages of GCLs and their potential to address the barriers to green lending are explored. The final Section of the report looks at the limitations and challenges to the deployment of GCLs by PFIs and introduces questions for future research. The methodology for this study is based on a review of the relevant academic and applied literature, an analysis of the publicly available information on GCLs extended to date, and interviews with representatives of several PFIs and LFIs, as well as industry experts. (authors)