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[en] This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible effects of electricity market liberalisation on the public service aspects of electricity supply in Switzerland. The definition and extent of public service in the electricity supply area are presented and differences in costs and prices for local and regional usage of the electricity grid are examined. Aspects such as guarantee of supply and price-solidarity are discussed as are the requirements placed by federal energy-policies that concern energy efficiency and the promotion of the use of renewable forms of energy. The possible influence of liberalisation on the individual elements of public service in the electricity area are looked at and actions to be taken to guarantee this public service are proposed
[en] This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made in connection with a proposed levy on non-renewable energy sources that was to be used to promote the use of renewable forms of energy and energy-efficiency. A further steering-tax on non-renewable forms of energy is also the subject of the study. The report examines the framework, as defined by energy legislation, for the implementation of such taxes and their possible impact on energy prices. The usage and substitution potentials of the various renewable forms of energy and of efficiency technologies are estimated. Suggestions for the distribution of the promotional funds on the basis of non-amortisable costs incurred by the use of the renewable technologies are discussed. The effect of the two levies on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are discussed and illustrated with graphical representations of various development scenarios
[en] The productivity of energy and environment must be improved to a great extent on a worldwide basis. The CO2 output per heated dwelling and per vehicle must be reduced by around three to five times. Above all, industrialised countries have a lot to do. Implementing such tremendous structural changes without causing economical and social chaos takes decades. Analyses made on a long-term basis show that the price elasticity of energy demand is, in reality, considerably higher than indicated by conventional empirical analysis; provided that the price signals are reliably provided on in a long term basis. Also, fundamentally new instruments are needed in environmental politics: a step-by-step ecological tax reform that is neutral as far as fiscal and distribution policy is concerned would be an efficient and feasible solution. Countries that choose this path early will even be able to enjoy economical advantages as a result
[de]Die Produktivitaet von Energie und Umwelt muss weltweit um ein Vielfaches verbessert werden. Der CO2-Ausstoss pro beheizte Wohnung und pro Auto muss um das Drei- bis Fuenffache abnehmen. Gefordert sind vor allem die Industrielaender. Solch gewaltige strukturelle Veraenderungen ohne wirtschaftliches und soziales Chaos zu erreichen, dauert Jahrzehnte. Langfristig angelegte Analysen zeigen, dass Preiselastizitaeten der Energienachfrage in Wirklichkeit wesentlich hoeher sind, als herkoemmliche empirische Analysen dies angeben; vorausgesetzt, die Preissignale sind zuverlaessig auf lange Frist angelegt. Und es braucht grundlegend neue Instrumente der Umweltpolitik: eine schrittweise oekologische Steuerreform, die staatsquoten- und verteilungspolitisch neutral ist, stellt eine effiziente und machbare Loesung dar. Laender, die sich frueh auf diesen Pfad begeben, werden sogar wirtschaftliche Vorteile nutzen koennen. (author)
[en] This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons
[en] In order to meet the statutory duties, the VGB Board has set up committees on a honorary basis. The VGB Technical Advisory Board is responsible for the manning and task setting for these committees. After successful restructuring of VGB's committees the tasks were delegated to three General Committees, 18 Technical and Special Committees and 50 Working Panels. Apart from managing the above-mentioned committees, VGB Offices are also assuming further tasks. In addition to the activities in the regulating standards, VGB is co-ordinating joint research and organises seminars, technical meetings, conferences and the annual VGB Congress ''Power Plants''. The conferences are a further platform of the international exchange of experience and last but not least also our technical journal on hand. (orig.)
[en] Inertialization of residues is a key task of incinerators. Residues of conventional incineration processes may contain high levels of inorganic or organic pollutants and must be treated prior to recycling. the most effective process is thermal treatment above the melting point. This will destroy organic pollutants like dioxins/furans and pathogenic compounds, while the heavy metals will be partly volatilized. The glassy slag obtained as end product is low in heavy metals and more or less resistant to leaching. The The author describes a method for calculating activity coefficients of volatile components of diluted, liquid multicomponent systems. With these data, the data base for thermodynamic description of fluid mixtures was updated, and a set of characteristic data was established for describing transport in an inflatable module. Once the activity coefficients of interesting constituents of the slag are known along with the transport conditions in the volatilization process, it is possible to optimize the thermal treatment of critical ashes and dusts with a view to energy consumption and process control. In two different exemplary process concepts, the energy consumption for residue treatment is estimated. The processes proposed are compared with published process proposals, and their energy consumption is assessed in a comoparative study
[de]Eine der wesentlichen Aufgaben der Abfallverbrennung ist die Inertisierung des Abfalls. Da die festen Rueckstaende aus klassischen Verbrennungsverfahren hohe Gehalte an anorganischen und organischen Schadstoffen aufweisen, koennen sie nicht ohne Vorbehandlung weiterverwertet werden. Das im Hinblick auf die Inertisierung wirkungsvollste Verfahren ist die thermische Behandlung der Verbrennungsrueckstaende oberhalb des Schmelzpunktes. Hierbei werden die organischen Schadstoffe wie Dioxine/Furane oder pathogene Bestandteile zerstoert und die Schwermetalle teilweise verfluechtigt. Die so erzeugte glasfoermige Schlacke ist schwermetallarm und weitgehend laugungsresistent. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde eine Methode zur Bestimmung der Aktivitaetskoeffizienten von fluechtigen Komponenten aus verduennten, fluessigen Mehrkomponentensystemen entwickelt. Durch die mit dem Verfahren ermittelten Stoffdaten wird die Datenbasis zur thermodynamischen Beschreibung entsprechender Stoffgemische erweitert. Darueber hinaus wurde unter Zugrundelegung eigener Experimente und von Messungen aus der Literatur ein Kennzahlenansatz zur Beschreibung des Stofftransports in einem Aufblasmodul abgeleitet. Mit der Kenntnis der Aktivitaetskoeffizienten interessierender Konstituenten der Schlacken und der Stofftransportbedingungen im Verfluechtigungsprozess ist es moeglich, die thermische Behandlung kritischer Aschen und Staeube optimiert in Bezug auf den Energieeinsatz und die Prozessfuehrung zu gestalten. Beispielhaft wird fuer zwei unterschiedliche Prozesskonzepte der Energiebedarf fuer die Reststoffbehandlung abgeschaetzt. Die vorgeschlagenen Prozesse werden mit Verfahrensvorschlaegen aus der Literatur verglichen und im Hinblick auf den Energiebedarf bewertet. (orig.)
[en] This comprehensive article discusses the possibilities and advantages offered by the increased use of district heating systems in Switzerland. Comparisons are made between the use of district heating in Switzerland and in Denmark, where almost the half of heating requirements are met by district heating systems. The article summarises the contributions presented at the conference by various experts from Switzerland and abroad, including energy and climate-change expert H.U. von Weizsaecker. Topics covered range from dwindling oil resources, global warming and energy prognoses to the price and availability of fossil resources in general. Arguments in favour of district heating systems are presented. Also, the external costs of various forms of energy are discussed, as are strategies for the promotion of district heating systems. The role to be played by district heating systems in bridging the gap between fossil fuels and the use of renewable energy sources is examined and the use of wood-fired district heating systems is looked at
[en] This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data
[en] This article takes a look at China's energy requirements and the energy policies of its government. These requirements and policies are examined in a national and international context. The question on how industrialised countries like Switzerland can take on the challenges posed by China's growing demands for energy is examined. The sheer dimensions of China and the size of its population are discussed and compared with industrialised nations in the rest of the world. Background figures on China's goals with respect to population growth and per capita BIP are discussed and figures on energy requirements, transport, industry and building activities are presented. Energy supply and greenhouse gas emission topics are also discussed
[en] The transformation of the energy supply is a worldwide phenomenon. This is reflected in the accelerated pace of growth in the expansion of renewable energies. Their share of global power generation grew from 17.7% in 2007 to 24.3% in 2017. The contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity generation is highest in Central and South America. Africa, the continent with the lowest electrification rate, also has the lowest power generation from renewable sources. Germany ranks third in the worldwide country capacity ranking for wind power, fourth for solar energy and fifth for bio-energy.
[de]Die Transformation der Energieversorgung ist ein weltweites Phaenomen. Dies findet in der beschleunigten Wachstumsdynamik beim Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien Ausdruck. Deren Anteil an der weltweiten Stromerzeugung ist von 17,7 % im Jahr 2007 auf 24,3 % im Jahr 2017 gewachsen. Am hoechsten ist der Stromerzeugungsbeitrag Erneuerbarer in Mittel- und Suedamerika. Afrika als Kontinent mit der geringsten Elektrifizierungsrate weist auch die niedrigste Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien auf. Deutschland steht im weltweiten Laender-Kapazitaetsranking bei Windkraft an dritter, bei Solarenergie an vierter und bei Bio-Energie an fuenfter Stelle.