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[en] This note offers a perspective on whether tradeable permits are a passing fad or an enduring trend. It does so in noting how various types of tradeable permit systems relate to conventional environmental permits, what are the unique requirements of tradeable permit systems, and why they might be preferred to alternative instruments. A final observation concerns the analogy between tradeable permits for environmental goods and private property in land
[en] Energy demand and GDP per capita are strongly correlated, while public concern over the role of energy in climate change is growing. Nuclear power plants produce 16% of world electricity demands without greenhouse gases. Generation-IV advanced nuclear energy systems are being designed to be safe and economical. Minimizing the handling and storage of nuclear waste is important. NIF and ITER are bringing sustainable fusion energy closer, but a significant gap in fusion technology development remains. Fusion-fission hybrids could be a synergistic step to a pure fusion economy and act as a technology bridge. We discuss how a pulsed power-driven Z-pinch hybrid system producing only 20 MW of fusion yield can drive a sub-critical transuranic blanket that transmutes 1280 kg of actinide wastes per year and produces 3000 MW. These results are applicable to other inertial and magnetic fusion energy systems. A hybrid system could be introduced somewhat sooner because of the modest fusion yield requirements and can provide both a safe alternative to fast reactors for nuclear waste transmutation and a maturation path for fusion technology. The development and demonstration of advanced materials that withstand high-temperature, high-irradiation environments is a fundamental technology issue that is common to both fusion-fission hybrids and Generation-IV reactors
[en] The Joint European Torus (JET) is the largest tokamak currently in operation in the world. One of the greatest challenges of JET is the integrated commissioning of all its major plant systems. This is driven, partially, by the size and complexity of its operational infrastructure and also by the fact that, being an international environment, it has to address the issues of integrating, commissioning and maintaining plant systems developed by third parties. The ITER tokamak, now in construction, is a fusion device twice the size of JET and, being a joint effort between the European Union, China, India, Japan, South Korea, the Russian Federation and the USA, it will share on a wider scale all of the JET challenges regarding integration and integrated commissioning of very large and complex plant systems. With the scope of taking advantage from the history and experience of JET, Fusion for Energy (F4E) has worked together with the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), the host and operator of JET, for the provision of ITER relevant user experiences related to the integrated commissioning of the tokamak. This work presents and discusses the main results and the methods that were used to extract and translate the commissioning experience information into ITER requirements.
[en] Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing such a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, just as the electro-nuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project ( (www.europairs.eu)) presently on-going in the frame of the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7). Although small and of short duration (21 months), EUROPAIRS is of strategic importance: it generates the boundary conditions for rapid demonstration of collocating HTR with industrial processes as proposed by the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN). This paper presents the main goals, the organization and the working approach of EUROPAIRS. It also presents the status of the viability assessment studies for coupling HTR with industrial end-user systems as one of the main pillars of the project. The main goal of the viability assessment is to identify developments required to remove the last technological and licensing barriers for a viable coupling scheme. The study is expected to result in guidelines for directing the choice of an industrial scale prototype.
[en] The increasing importance of, threats and chances with respect to the development and use of renewable energy sources in a liberalized, international market for energy were discussed in several workshops, posters and papers, presented at the title conference. The subjects of the workshops were Demand, Supply, and Target Groups. The 127 papers dealt with (1) demand-side subjects as product/market combination, market strategies, and practical experiments, and supply-side subjects as wind power, bio-energy, solar energy (passive, thermal and photovoltaic), heat pumps, and energy systems
[en] The scientific community must expand its role in the political debate over climate change if we are to have wise and smart policies. The current debate is characterized by a cacaphony of competing scientific claims, scare tactics and propaganda. Scientists, particularly those in academia, are badly needed to uphold the principles of scientific inquiry and standards of evidence, upon which rational public policy depends. They should weigh into the conflict heavily, when the bounds of -rational analysis are exceeded. The acid test of analytical rigor must remain a first principle
[en] A typical modern power generation facility has a capacity of about 1 GWe (Gigawatt electric) per unit. This works well for fossil fuel plants and for most fission facilities for it is large enough to support the sophisticated generation infrastructure but still small enough to be accommodated by most utility grid systems. The size of potential fusion power systems may demand a different viewpoint. The compression and heating of the fusion fuel for ignition requires a large driver, even if it is necessary for only a few microseconds or nanoseconds per energy pulse. The economics of large systems, that can effectively use more of the driver capacity, need to be examined. The assumptions used in this model are specific for the Fusion Power Corporation (FPC) SPRFD process but could be generalized for any system. We assume that the accelerator is the most expensive element of the facility and estimate its cost to be $20 billion. Ignition chambers and fuel handling facilities are projected to cost $1.5 billion each with up to 10 to be serviced by one accelerator. At first this seems expensive but that impression has to be tempered by the energy output that is equal to 35 conventional nuclear plants. This means the cost per kWh is actually low. Using the above assumptions and industry data for generators and heat exchange systems, we conclude that a fully utilized fusion system will produce marketable energy at roughly one half the cost of our current means of generating an equivalent amount of energy from conventional fossil fuel and/or fission systems. Even fractionally utilized systems, i.e. systems used at 25% of capacity, can be cost effective in many cases. In conclusion, SPRFD systems can be scaled to a size and configuration that can be economically viable and very competitive in today's energy market. Electricity will be a significant element in the product mix but synthetic fuels and water may also need to be incorporated to make the large system economically viable. Co-location of large energy consumers such as metal or chemical refiners and/or processors also needs to be considered
[en] Since Korea joined ITER as Korea was developing a fully super-conducting tokamak, KSTAR, the national plan for developing fusion energy was renewed and focused on a clear mission - developing a technological self-reliant program for a fusion demonstration device. A new technical roadmap was developed toward self-reliant technologies for constructing a fusion power plant in a similar time window as in the EU, Japan and the US. This looks tough and formidable but Korea could take advantage of their well-established nuclear technologies in power plant design, construction, and operation. The government and the legislature recognized the importance of this effort by establishing a special law for supporting it practically and for giving it a high priority in their R and D agenda. Under this favorable environment, various scenarios for finding the most effective and efficient path to achieve the goal were reviewed and some of the features of this review will be presented
[en] The development of new natural gas supplies faces a variety of obstacles. It will be argued that substantial government action might be necessary to facilitate the timely development of production and transport capacity to realise the envisaged growth. We begin with an overview of the issues surrounding natural gas market developments. Then we turn specifically to the situation in the regional gas markets, their supply sources and to the question what national governments can do to efficiently facilitate to realise the growth of the gas markets
[en] This paper presents seven principles that demand consideration for any country using a nuclear power program or wanting to acquire such a program. These principles are assessing the overall energy system, determining effective use of financial resources for energy development, ensuring high safety standards, implementing best security practices, preventing the spread of nuclear weapons, managing radioactive waste in a safe and secure manner, and enacting a legal framework that encompasses the other principle areas. The paper applies management methods that underscore development of strong independent national capabilities integrated within an interdependent international system. The paper discusses the individual responsibilities of states in all seven principles and offers recommendations for how states can benefit from greater international cooperation in nuclear energy development