Results 1 - 10 of 418
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[en] There is a broad consensus that the costs of abatement of global climate change can be reduced efficiently through the assignment of quota rights and through international trade in these rights. There is, however, no consensus on whether the initial assignment of emissions permits can affect the Pareto-optimal global level of abatement. This paper provides some insight into the equity-efficiency puzzle. Qualitative results are obtained from a small-scale model; then quantitative evidence of separability is obtained from MERGE, a multiregion integrated assessment model. It is shown that if all the costs of climate change can be expressed in terms of GDP losses, Pareto-efficient abatement strategies are independent of the initial allocation of emissions rights. This is the case sometimes described as 'market damages'. If, however, different regions assign different values to nonmarket damages such as species losses, different sharing rules may affect the Pareto-optimal level of greenhouse gas abatement. Separability may then be demonstrated only in specific cases (e.g. identical welfare functions or quasi-linearity of preferences or small shares of wealth devoted to abatement)
[en] This paper presents the exergoeconomic analysis of a novel process generating electric energy and hydrogen. Coal and high-temperature heat are used as input energy to the process. The process is a true 'zero-emission process' because (a) no NOX is formed during coal combustion with sulfuric acid, and (b) the combustion products CO2 and SO2 are removed separately as compressed liquids from the overall process. The process cycle is based on two chemical reactions. The first reaction takes place in an electrolytic cell and delivers the hydrogen product. In the second step, coal reacts with sulfuric acid in a high-pressure combustion reactor. The combustion gas is expanded in a gas turbine to produce electric power. The combustion products are compressed and separated so that almost pure CO2 can be removed from the cycle. The overall process is characterized by very high energetic and exergetic efficiencies. However, the overall process is very capital intensive. The electrolytic cell dominates the costs associated with the overall process. Detailed results of the thermodynamic simulation, the economic and the exergoeconomic analyses of the process including estimates of the product costs are presented
[en] The objective of this article is to analyze the Brazilian Biodiesel Policy (PNPB) and to identify the social and environmental aspects of sustainability that are present or absent within it. Biofuels, namely alcohol and biodiesel, have been increasing in popularity on a global scale due to their potential as alternative and renewable energy sources. Brazil, a vast country blessed with abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a global leader in the production of biofuels. This article includes a brief analysis of the concept of sustainable development, which served as a basis to evaluate the Policy documents. Although PNPB's implementation, which began in 2004, is still within its initial stage, it was possible to identify and elaborate on the environmental and social aspects of the Policy, namely: the social inclusion of family farmers; regional development; food security; influencing the carbon and energy balance of biodiesel; promoting sustainable agricultural practices and a diversity of feedstock. (author)
[en] Given recent developments on energy markets and skyrocketing oil prices, we argue for an urgent need to study the potential effects of world oil production reaching a maximum (Peak Oil) in order to facilitate the development of adaptation policies. We consider input-output (IO) modelling as a powerful tool for this purpose. However, the standard Leontief type model implicitly assumes that all necessary inputs to satisfy a given demand can and will be supplied. This is problematic if the availability of certain key inputs becomes restricted and it is therefore only of limited usefulness for the study of the phenomenon of Peak Oil. Hence this paper firstly reviews two alternative modelling tools within the IO framework: supply-driven and mixed models. The former has been severely criticised for its problematic assumption of perfect factor substitution and perfect elasticity of demand as revealed by Oosterhaven [Oosterhaven J. On the plausibility of the supply-driven IO model. J Reg Sci 1988; 28:203-17. ]. The supply-constrained model on the other hand proved well suited to analyse the quantity dimension of Peak Oil and is therefore applied empirically in the second part of the paper, using data for the UK, Japanese and Chilean economy. Results show how differences in net-oil exporting and net-oil importing countries are clearly visible in terms of final demand. Industries, most affected in all countries, include transportation, electricity production and financial and trade services. (author)
[en] Energy consumption of buildings takes up about a third of Singapore's total electricity production. In this paper, we present a pioneering study to investigate the energy performance of residential buildings. Beginning with an energy survey of households, we established the air-conditioning usage patterns and modelled residential buildings for computer simulations. An ETTV equation for residential buildings was developed. Employing this equation, we demonstrated how to achieve improved energy efficiency in residential buildings. Two types of residential buildings, namely, point block and slab block, were modelled and parametric runs performed. ETTV impacts the energy consumption of residential buildings and thus lowering the ETTV will result in reduced building heat load. Results from the developed equation showed that a unit decrease in ETTV resulted in 4% and 3.5% reduction in annual cooling energy for point block and slab block residential buildings, respectively. In addition, a set of simple energy and load estimating equations were developed using computer simulation and local climatic data. These equations provided a means of estimating the annual cooling energy consumption of residential buildings in Singapore.
[en] Carbon capture from point source emissions has been recognized as one of several strategies necessary for mitigating unfettered release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. To keep GHGs at manageable levels, large decreases in CO2 emissions through capturing and separation will be required. This article reviews the possible CO2 capture and separation technologies for end-of-pipe applications. The three main CO2 capture technologies discussed include post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion techniques. Various separation techniques, such as chemical absorption, physical absorption, physical adsorption, cryogenics, membrane technology, membranes in conjunction with chemical absorption and chemical-looping combustion (CLC) are also thoroughly discussed. Future directions are suggested for application by oil and gas industry. Sequestration methods, such as geological, mineral carbonation techniques, and ocean dump are not covered in this review.
[en] In the period 1990-2007, CO2 emissions from Ireland's Transport sector increased by 181%. It has been proposed that a transition to EV (electrically-powered vehicles) - either BEV (battery-powered) or PHEV (plug-in hybrids) - offers the potential for significant reductions in these emissions. However, the benefits of PHEV - and of plug-in vehicles generally - accrue because some fraction of the fossil fuel normally consumed by the vehicle is displaced by electricity extracted from the national grid. The net benefit therefore depends on many factors, including the characteristics of the electricity generation and distribution system, and the proportion of vkm (vehicle-kilometres) completed under electric power. This paper examines these factors in an Irish context. On the basis of individual vehicles, it is found that electrification yields substantial and immediate reductions in GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions for urban-type driving cycles. For inter-city travel, however, the percentage reduction attainable is much smaller, and the technical difficulty of achieving this capability is much greater. Unless that challenge can be overcome, it is shown, 50-75% of CO2 emissions from private cars will remain beyond the reach of electrification.
[en] In this study, the energy and exergy analyses of fluidized bed drying of carrot cubes were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted at inlet air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 oC, BD (bed depths) of 30, 60, and 90 mm and square-cubed carrot dimensions of 4, 7, and 10 mm. The effects of drying variables on energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, exergy loss and exergy efficiency were studied. The energy utilization and energy utilization ratio varied between 0.105-1.949 kJ/s and 0.074-0.486, respectively. The exergy loss and exergy efficiency were found to be in the range of 0.206-1.612 kJ/s and 0.103-0.707, respectively. The results showed that small particles, deep beds and high inlet air temperatures increased energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, and exergy loss due to high value of heat and mass transfer. Also, the exergy efficiency had maximum value when higher drying air temperature, larger CS (cube size) and shorter BD were used for drying experiment.
[en] In this work the exergy method is used to compare various methods for removal of NOx from waste (tail) gas released into the atmosphere from nitric acid production plants with respect to their overall environmental impact. Three basic methods for NOx abatement are analysed: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) and extended absorption. The positive and negative effects and the net effect from the NOx abatement are calculated. The following exergy-based indicators are used for comparing the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of different treatment processes as a result from pollutants removal: reduction of the exergy of the emissions from the whole process route (ammonia and nitric acid production units); exergy of the additional emissions, arising as a result of the treatment process; total net reduction of the exergy consumption, Cumulative Energy Consumption (CEnC) and Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CExC) of natural resources as a result of the waste flows treatment. -- Highlights: → A thermodynamic study of the effects of three NOx abatement methods. → A comparison of the positive, negative and overall net effects of the three methods. → The best overall results are obtained for the extended absorption method. → The selective catalytic reduction method is estimated as unsatisfactory. → The non-selective catalytic reduction method could benefit from improved catalysts.
[en] After tremendous growth of wind power generation capacity in recent years, China now has 44.7 GW of wind-derived power. Despite the recent growth rates and promises of a bright future, two important issues - the capability of the grid infrastructure and the availability of backup systems - must be critically discussed and tackled in the medium term. The study shows that only a relatively small share of investment goes towards improving and extending the electricity infrastructure which is a precondition for transmitting clean wind energy to the end users. In addition, the backup systems are either geographically too remote from the potential wind power sites or currently financially infeasible. Finally, the introduction of wind power to the coal-dominated energy production system is not problem-free. Frequent ramp ups and downs of coal-fired plants lead to lower energy efficiency and higher emissions, which are likely to negate some of the emission savings from wind power. The current power system is heavily reliant on independently acting but state-owned energy companies optimizing their part of the system, and this is partly incompatible with building a robust system supporting renewable energy technologies. Hence, strategic, top-down co-ordination and incentives to improve the overall electricity infrastructure is recommended. -- Highlights: ► We analyse the power grid availability for large-scale wind integration in China. ► We examine the choices of backup systems for the compensation of wind power. ► The Chinese power grid infrastructure is not sufficient to integrate the wind power. ► The backup systems are either geographically unavailable or financially infeasible. ► Using coal-fired plants as the backup system is unavoidable but not problem-free.