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[en] This study focuses on the processes through which the rules and regulations that govern European electricity markets - and inherently, their integration process - are established. So far, European policy makers have largely followed a 'trial-and-error' approach to finding an appropriate regulatory mode (process) for dealing effectively with market integration issues. This unstructured approach to regulatory mode selection leads to several problems: - Today's trial-and-error strategy of shifting from one regulatory mode to another is time-consuming. - In the regulatory mode selection process, certain key principles of good governance are insufficiently considered. - European regulatory processes are experienced as vague, intransparent, and illegitimate by 'outside' stakeholders. This study develops a 'structured approach to regulatory mode decision-making' (STARMODE) based on the theory of decision modelling in policy management and a case study exploring three key market integration issues in the field of electricity markets: interconnector investment, congestion management and market transparency. The main objective is to present a systematic and comprehensive framework for analysing and improving regulatory mode decision-making in the context of the European Union, focusing on electricity market integration. The STARMODE approach is generally applicable to (and relevant for) European market integration issues in industries characterized by a natural monopoly and/or an essential service. The approach may also contribute to national regulatory mode decision-making and multi-state decision-making in other continents.
[en] This paper tests the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for four local (SOx, NOx, CO, VOC) and two global (CO2, GHG) air pollutants. Using a new panel data set of thirty OECD countries, the paper finds that the postulated inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution does not hold for all gases. A meaningful Environmental Kuznets Curve exists only for CO, VOC and NOx, where for CO2 the curve is monotonically increasing. For GHG there is indication of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution, but still most countries are on the increasing path of the curve and hence the future development of the curve is uncertain. For SOx it was found that emissions follow an U-shaped curve. Based on the empirical results, the paper concludes that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not hold for all gases, it is rather an empirical artefact than a regularity.
[en] Marketing opening in the electric sector and green electricity products supply increase opportunity for households to voluntarily support renewable energy production. Despite the general development of committed actions, and in the lack of public intervention on prices, subscription rates are strongly below consumers' interest announcements and stated willingness to pay. This thesis analyses green electricity subscription factors: how to promote subscription in the case of individual sensitive and rather favourable attitude toward green electricity? Is it possible to encourage preference revelation? Answering these questions requires combining economics analysis and psychological concepts. In that aim, we employ the Theory of Planned Behavior, a social psychology model able to articulate theoretical analysis, psychological concepts and an empirical survey carried out in St Gallen (Switzerland). This survey is based on experimental method and commits, firstly, in testing our hypothesis, secondly in providing a method to influence individual beliefs in order to reinforce subscription intention. Finally, the survey is employed as an incentive tool for concretizing the intention and then promoting individual subscription. We determine that even though the premium to be paid may be an obstacle to subscription, other behavioral and attitudinal factors can explain the construction of individual preferences, intention and action. Analysing the various green electricity demand motivations as well as supply determinants enables to introduce the concept of 'certainty of subscription benefit'. The more the consciousness of personal benefit, the less price an obstacle to subscribe. As a result, our work aims firstly at providing analytical explanations to decision makers concerning the origin of the voluntary individual contribution to public goods as the environment, secondly, at developing green electricity preferences revelation mechanism. This kind of analysis is particularly relevant for supporting the development of the current and emerging green markets, for example the French green market established the first of July 2007. (author)
[en] The electric and gas industries have been traditionally managed by public monopolies. The post World War II context was supportive to such an industrial organization. In fact, Europe was getting engaged in a long period of economic growth and was benefiting a favorable energetic context. At the end of the 90's, Europe decides to liberalize the national energy industries in order to create a unique European energy market. This liberalization has occurred in a context that as dramatically changed from the economic and energetic perspective. Indeed, the globalization phenomenon has strengthened the competitiveness of the emerging economies. The strong growth of the energy demand and the stagnation of the supply on the offer side have created tensions which have been increasingly frequent and important on the energy markets. Besides, facing greater budget restrictions and financial difficulties, the states have wished to get financially disengaged from these industries. Many factors show that the economic and energetic context will not get better in the next decades. Hence, in this new context, the liberalization of the energy industries should respond to two major stakes for the energy security of the European countries: the sustainability of the investments and the control of the energy demand. After having studied the merger and investment strategies of the energy firms, operating within a freshly liberalized sector, we make some propositions to draw up a new industrial organization which would allow a more efficient response to these two stakes. (author)
[en] This thesis deals with the newly role given to the renewable energies in a still rural French area, The Charente Maritime, while here and there, two issues are at stake: the question of climate change as well as the dramatic decrease of fossil energy stocks, in a period more and more turning towards the implementation of environment protection measures. Our research makes a review of the different renewable energies. Firstly the ones already produced and used in Charente Maritime, secondly the ones whose implementation is planned and eventually those which are in a state of project (hydroelectric, solar, wind and biomass energies). The thesis is also about the potential of these energies expansion, about their consequences on environment, and in the way farmers, local representatives, association leaders and inhabitants view them. As a conclusion the thesis shows that environment results that we can draw from all these innovations is mixed: while the use of renewable energies reduce a little the dependence of Charentaises countries from fossil energies, the direct environment impact of these new energy sources appears ambiguous and especially contrasted. The study has been made in a quite little geographical area. It is all the same representative of the current changes in the French as well as the European countryside, the local and national specificities having been clearly underlined. (author)
[fr]Cette these porte sur la place nouvellement attribuee aux energies renouvelables dans un departement francais encore largement rural, la Charente-Maritime, alors que commence a se poser, ici comme ailleurs, la question du changement climatique et celle de l'epuisement des energies fossiles dans un contexte privilegiant de plus en plus la mise en place de mesures de protection de l'environnement. La these passe en revue les differentes energies renouvelables d'ores et deja produites et utilisees en Charente-Maritime ou dont la mise en oeuvre est envisagee (hydroelectricite, solaire, eolien, energie issue de la biomasse). Plusieurs exemples precis d'exploitations agricoles impliquees dans la production et la consommation de ces nouvelles energies sont longuement presentes. La these s'interesse egalement au potentiel de developpement de ces energies, a leurs retombees sur l'environnement et a la facon dont elles sont percues, tant par les agriculteurs que les elus locaux, les responsables d'associations ou les habitants en general. Il apparait clairement que la politique de developpement des energies renouvelables actuellement menee en Charente-Maritime est incitative, tout particulierement en ce qui concerne l'energie solaire et la biomasse energie au profit desquelles les aides regionales et departementales sont importantes (mise en oeuvre d'une filiere locale bois - energie dans le pays Saintonge Romane). Par contre, l'edification de parcs eoliens est freinee par les pouvoirs publics en raison de leur trop fort impact paysager dans un departement a vocation touristique affirmee. La these montre, en fin de compte, que le bilan environnemental que l'on peut tirer de toutes ces innovations apparait mitige: le recours aux energies renouvelables reduit un peu la dependance des campagnes charentaises a l'egard des energies fossiles, mais l'impact environnemental direct de ces nouvelles sources d'energie apparait ambigu et pour le moins contraste. L'etude, quoique conduite dans un cadre territorial relativement restreint, est neanmoins largement representative des transformations en cours dans les campagnes francaises, voire europeennes, les particularites locales et nationales ayant ete clairement soulignees. (auteur)
[en] After a literature survey enabling the determination of the advantages and drawbacks of existing methods of assessment of the potential energy gains of an industrial site, this research report presents a newly developed method, named Energy and Exergy Analysis of Transformation Processes (or AEEP for Analyse energetique et exergetique des procedes de transformation), while dealing with actual industrial operations, in order to demonstrate the systematic character of this method. The different steps of the method are presented and detailed, one of them, the process analysis, being critical for the application of the developed method. This particular step is then applied to several industrial unitary operations in order to be a base for future energy audits in the concerned industry sectors, as well as to demonstrate its generic and systematic character. The method is the then applied in a global manner to a cheese manufacturing plant, all the different steps of the AEEP being applied. The author demonstrates that AEEP is a systematic method and can be applied to all energy audit levels, moreover to the lowest levels which have a relatively low cost
[en] The Dutch electricity sector has been transformed into a liberalized international energy market. Market players are free to choose from various electricity generation options when replacing or expanding production capacity. However, choices that are made now will influence emissions (ecology), integral costs (economy) and availability (security of supply) for the next 25 - 40 years. This thesis shows if and how, based on the current electricity supply system, an optimal balance of ecology, economy and security of supply can be achieved. First, the current electricity supply system is described to create a frame of reference. Then, future technological developments are described for electricity production options. Four potential scenarios are constructed featuring various uncertainties: the globalising versus the local economy; priority versus subordination for the environment; and the security/insecurity of the fuel supply. These four scenarios are worked out with a specially developed techno-economic simulation model; the results are analysed in terms of ecology, economy and security of supply. The findings indicate that it is impossible to arrive at an optimal balance for the defined scenarios. Scenarios with a low environmental impact lead to high integral costs and vice versa. However, by applying a smart combination of various modern generation technologies, CO2 capture and storage, the deployment of biomass and the re-use of residual heat it is possible to reach an optimal balance whereby the additional integral costs can be kept under control compared with the lowest-cost scenarios. To achieve this, clear growth and incentive guidelines need to be established for the various production options. This thesis will form a good starting point for that exercise
[en] For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.
[en] Studies quantifying the contributions of nuclear energy to the countries that operate them are scant. The aim of this study, therefore, is to investigate both qualitatively and quantitatively these benefits, which have proven to be significant. We present estimates of the value of nuclear energy in terms of economics, the environment, security, and social issues, specifically for nuclear energy used in Korea. This study also suggests an approach to quantitatively measure and compare the value of energy ultimately for the generation of electricity from different energy sources Input-Output analysis was used to find out the economic contribution of energy sources. Nuclear energy contributes a similar amount of electricity that coal power plants do but, surprisingly, its value added GDP contribution is almost twice that of coal. Coal, oil, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and nuclear contribute 0.47%, 0.05%, 0.23%, and 0.92% to the value added GDP, respectively. While this may seem small, the four major industries in Korea - primary iron and steel products, semiconductors and related devices, motor vehicles, and petroleum refinery products - contributed 1.3%, 2.1%, 2.2%, and 2.9% to GDP in that same year, respectively. To measure the environmental effect, a carbon-tax scenario was used. Considering both health effects and the carbon-tax scenario, nuclear had the lowest environmental cost at 0.29 won/kWh. Coal had the highest at 24.47 won/kWh, followed by oil at 19.52 won/kWh, and LNG at 12.98 won/kWh. Therefore, if the carbon-tax (or some constraint) is imposed for future and current environmental concerns, nuclear energy's competitiveness will only increase. In spite of the importance of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Korea, the public's attitude towards nuclear energy is not favorable. This negative social perception was defined as the social cost of nuclear energy. To estimate it, a Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was utilized. This method estimates the Willingness To Pay (WTP) for nuclear energy from face-to-face interviews. The WTP results increased from 0.710 won/kWh to 1.199 won/kWh, and the total social cost of nuclear power was calculated to be 105-175 billion won/year. To quantify the energy security cost, a new approach was developed using Herfindahl-Hirchmann Index. The total cost of energy security, which integrates the cost of supply and economic security for different energy sources under different supply disruption periods, was derived from this model. It was found that the most secure energy source is nuclear, followed by coal, oil, and LNG. Its value was calculated to be 1.671 won/kWh for both 6 months and one year, and 30.927 won/kWh for two years. In contrast, LNG has the highest security cost (200.962 won/kWh for 6 months and 204.421 won/kWh for one year) due to its large economic cost of security (125.874 won /kWh). The latter stems from its high price volatility and fuel price portion. Although oil has the highest cost of supply security (130.410 won/kWh), the cost of economic security for LNG is much higher and it compensates the cost of supply security of oil. Consideration of the different security costs of different energy sources leads to the following result: it is recommendable for Korea to depend more on nuclear energy and coal and less on LNG and oil for its energy strategy
[en] This work focuses on the techno-economic study of massive hydrogen production by the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process and also deals with the possibility of producing the steam needed in the process by using different thermal energy sources. Among several sources, those retained in this study are the biomass and domestic waste incineration units, as well as two nuclear reactors (European Pressurised water Reactor - EPR and Sodium Fast Reactor - SFR). Firstly, the technical evaluation of the steam production by each of these sources was carried out. Then, the design and modelling of the equipments composing the process, specially the electrolysers (Solid Oxides Electrolysis Cells), are presented. Finally, the hydrogen production cost for each energy sources coupled with the HTE process is calculated. Moreover, several sensibility studies were performed in order to determine the process key parameter and to evaluate the influence of the unit size effect, the electric energy cost, maintenance, the cells current density, their investment cost and their lifespan on the hydrogen production cost. Our results show that the thermal energy cost is much more influent on the hydrogen production cost than the steam temperature at the outlet stream of the thermal source. It seems also that the key parameters for this process are the electric energy cost and the c ells lifespan. The first one contributes for more than 70% of the hydrogen production cost. From several cell lifespan values, it seems that a 3 year value, rather than 1 year, could lead to a hydrogen production cost reduced on 34%. However, longer lifespan values going from 5 to 10 years would only lead to a 8% reduction on the hydrogen production cost. (author)