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[en] Twenty five years ago we began planning the first United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, which took place in 1955. It had a tremendous effect. For the first time, for example, scientists from the West met scientists from the socialist countries; they found that they had a common language and they could appreciate one another's work. That changed the whole outlook of the period. In fact, Dag Hammerskjold said it was the greatest political event of the decade. Now we face a different problem, but I feel we should try to convene a similar meeting. A few things have happened since 1955. We have made enormous advances in the application of atomic energy; for example, the Soviet Union, which at the time had a reactor hooked up with a capacity of 5 kilowatts, now has nuclear power plants with a total capacity which is probably at least a thousand times greater. On the other hand, we are now not quite as optimistic that less developed countries can use atomic energy efficiently at the present time, but atomic energy - even if retarded in one way or another - is here. Whatever the changes since 1955, I believe that if the nations of the world took counsel together at a conference similar to the United Nations Conferences on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, it would become easier for the rulers of those nations to conduct themselves with assurance and confidence against the opposition of people who, for their own reasons, want to impede scientific and technical progress. I would like to see a revival of the spirit of initiative and daring so that we can again attack our problems rationally, knowing the risks but taking them, f would like people all over the world to realize that we are a global community and that an injury to one part of that community, whether physical, psychological or cultural, is an injury to the whole. So what I am calling for is a conference which will revive the flagging morale of science and technology, so that we can once again rely on the ability of the human spirit courageously and boldly to find rational ways of solving our problems. Our problems are much more serious now than they were in 1955. I have mentioned the oil problem, but there are two others that we must take into account. The first is the tremendous increase in world population, and it is compounded by the second: the rising expectations of the growing population. How can one meet the desire of more and more people for what they think of as the good things of life? The stable survival of our culture depends on our solving these problems, which are global and just as serious for the Third World as for the developed countries, including the socialist countries
[en] Although the anti-nuclear campaign is partially political, in the sense that it involves some of its leaders in representations and collective choices affecting the general orientation of society, it has not succeeded in becoming a lasting feature of the political spectrum. This is due to partly to the grassroots concept of the anti-nuclear movement which believed that it was possible to stand up against nuclear plant at local level and ignore the real centres of power. It is also due to the fact that the main political and union organisations have not taken responsibility for total opposition to nuclear power in that this calls in question the values of progress and growth to which these organisations are profoundly attached. Lastly, it is due to the political situation; since 1975 and the development of the economic crisis, the nuclear problem is bound to be pushed into the background by the problems of employment, unemployment and the standard of living. (author)
[en] After an overview of some basic issues regarding energy (history, measurement units, world energy consumption, different types of energy, energy demand, energy resources, cost of energy imports), this report proposes an overview of the different new energies, of their means of production, and of their applications. It first addresses solar energies by distinguishing direct solar energy (thermal conversion, thermodynamic conversion, production of electric power with different types of plants, futuristic projects), and energies issued from phenomena resulting from solar activity (wind energy, sea energies, biomass). The second part addresses other sources of new energy by distinguishing those which will be soon exploited (geothermal energy, methane fermentation) or should be later exploited (thermonuclear fusion, hydrogen).
[en] This book contains current situation on petrochemical industry with supply and demand, instruction, production, assignment in Korea, such as export and import, task on petrochemistry about raw material. It also deals with view on petrochemistry in Korea such as check the goal of development of petrochemistry basics, preview on supply and demand and evaluation of international competitive power with prospect of international situation, process of import and export, and general prospect and making policy on petrochemical industry.
[en] Risk accounting has been around a long time, in various guises. For example, nuclear power, coal, oil and natural gas were compared in terms of risk per unit energy by C.L Comar and L A. Sagan in a landmark article in the 1976 Annual Review of Energy. They found that, when all the major sources of risk for each technology were summed nuclear power had a substantially lower risk than coal- or oil-burning stations. Other studies both before and after have confirmed this. But those who are uneasy about nuclear power, or who even denounce it, rarely advocate a return to coal and the smoky cities we all faced a few decades ago Rather, they usually propose the use of 'alternative', 'soft' or 'non-conventional' technologies such as solar, wind, ocean thermal, methanol, geothermal and a panoply of others. The question then is, what is the risk of each of these technologies compared with conventional systems like coal, and nuclear. Results of our risk accounting are surprising, to say the least. They indicate that when all the sources of risk are accounted for, most non-conventional technologies fare rather badly in comparison with conventional ones
[en] Full text: It has been once more recognized that the availability of adequately qualified manpower is an essential condition of success of any nuclear power programme or project, as well as of transfer of technology. This is especially relevant for the developing countries with nuclear power programmes or intending to start such programmes. At present, there are six developing Member States of the IAEA which have 12 nuclear power plants in operation with a total of 3600 MWe installed capacity. These and six more have 25 nuclear plants under construction with a total of 15 000 MWe. Thirty additional developing countries are in different stages of planning or implementing their first nuclear projects. It is expected that by the year 2000, the installed nuclear capacity of the developing world will be between 150 and 200 GWe. It has been estimated that if these development goals are to be achieved more than 100 000 people of the developing countries will have to receive specialized training during the next two decades. This means a very large effort and implies serious commitments to carry out adequate manpower development programmes. It will also require foreign assistance, wherever domestic training opportunities are unavailable. (author)
[en] Electricity is so basic to the world economy that certain electricity indices are used to express a country's economic standing (consumption or production of electricity per capita) and the standard of living enjoyed by a people (per capita electricity consumption in the domestic sector). Moreover, electricity supply has special characteristics which make the service unique as compared to other types of industry. The end product has to be delivered instantaneously and automatically upon the consumer's demand; except for pumped storage plants and electric batteries, technologies do not exist that can produce it economically at uniform rates, hold it in storage in large quantities, and deliver it under convenient schedules; insufficient capacity (shortage) or excessive capacity (idle capacity) have negative effects on the economy; the close inter-relation with economic and social factors imposes labour, environmental, financial and other constraints on the problem. Careful planning of the electric sector is therefore of great importance since the decisions to be taken involve the commitment of large resources, with potentially serious economic risks for the electrical utility and the economy as a whole