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[en] A cost model for a tokamak fusion power plant (FPP) is improved to evaluate material cost and manufacture cost, separately. Then, the improved cost model is applied to a commercial tokamak FPP, and reduction of FPP construction cost is investigated considering learning effect on manufacture of the fusion island part and the advanced manufacture of toroidal field (TF) coils. Finally, a development scenario of a tokamak FPP is proposed to contribute substantially to global climate stabilization under the framework of the Paris Agreement. (author)
[en] ASE objectives: • Digital Company through digitizing all company's processes; • Digital Product through digitizing the NPP as the primary object: creating digital twin of the whole NPP and its equipment, digitizing the engineering, construction and maintenance processes; • Digital Tools - through Creation of Multi-D industrial digital platform for complex technological objects management and control. Commercialization of the Services and the Products of the company with the help of the Platform; • Digital (Cyber) Security; • Digital Business - Reconsideration of the principles of communication with clients, suppliers and partners. Establishment of partnerships, creation of the new business models.
[en] Summary: • Overview of HRDC and IRRS was introduced. • The new qualification and training system was explained focusing on Basic level. • NRA has been developing the system and will continue to make efforts for its further improvement.
[en] The set of actions related to the objectives foreseen for the nuclear sector requires the strengthening of the national technological capacity in the various areas contemplated in the Brazilian Nuclear Program. In this context, the CNEN's Specialized Training Program, over the last years, has played a role of great importance and relevance for the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. The Specialized Training Program has become a fundamental tool for all nuclear institutions in Brazil, enabling projects of socio economic relevance, expanding and improving the technical scientific services offered by it and allowing to increase the potential of scientific and technological research execution. It is important that the amount of resources allocated to the Specialized Training Program, implemented by CNEN, be reviewed and expanded in the next five years (2018-2022), thus allowing that the objectives proposed for the Program in this new period can be fulfilled with efficiency and effectiveness, contemplating the demands of the Brazilian Nuclear Program.
[en] Electricity is essential for human well being; its reliable availability is a key success factor for any human development. Accordingly, the supply of electricity was organised everywhere as "infrastructure", characterised by an obligation to supply for the utility, but no competition or price risks. Security of supply was the key success criteria.
[en] ED (Economic Dispatch) problem is one of the vital step in operational planning. It is a nonconvex constrained optimization problem. However, it is solved as convex problem by approximation of machine input/output characteristics, thus resulting in an inaccurate result. Reliable, secure and cheapest supply of electrical energy to the consumers is the prime objective in power system operational planning. Increase in fuel cost, reduction in fossil-fuel assets and ecological concerns have forced to integrate renewable energy resources in the generation mix. However, the instability of wind and solar power output affects the power network. For solution of such solar and wind integrated economic dispatch problems, evolutionary approaches are considered potential solution methodologies. These approaches are considered as potential solution methodologies for non convex ED problem. This paper presents CEED (Combined Emission Economic Dispatch) of a power system comprising of multiple solar, wind and thermal units using continuous and binary FPA (Flower Pollination Algorithm). Proposed algorithm is applied on 5, 6, 15, 26 and 40 thermal generators by integrating several solar and wind plants, for both convex and nonconvex ED problems. Proposed algorithm is simulated in MATLAB 2014b. Results of simulations, when compared with other approaches, show promise of the approach. (author)
[en] The most important issue for the Republic of Armenia is to choose a new nuclear option, which will replace the existing unit after its decommissioning in 2026. The latest strategies for the development of the Armenian energy system are formulated in a Republic of Armenia governmental decree that was adopted in December 2015 and contained a long term (up to 2036) energy sector development strategy (referred to as ‘Strategy’ hereafter). This Strategy provides various possible expansion plans for the Armenian energy system, including different nuclear options. The future development of the Armenian energy system is expected to be mainly based upon nuclear energy and modern gas fired power generation plants, the development and expansion of economically viable and technically available renewable energy sources, and the diversification of fuel supply chains. At the same time, the Strategy document has not provided a final decision about the technologies expected to be implemented in the system. The main goal of the present study is to clarify and select the most attractive nuclear option for Armenia reflected in the Strategy by carrying out some additional evaluations and comparative analyses. For this purpose, the KIND approach and KIND-ET evaluation tool have been used. This report summarizes the main findings of the study.
[en] The development of renewable energy sources is a priority policy of the European Union, including Bulgaria. The country has a diverse power generation mix, including nuclear, thermal power plants and plants using renewables (hydro, wind, solar power plants and biomass). In the Bulgarian energy mix, base capacities includes nuclear power plant and thermal power plants. Unlike the plants involved in regulation frequencies and exchanges, Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) produces low cost electricity but cannot provide secondary regulation for technological considerations. This creates certain difficulties in covering the balance of the power system in periods of minimal load and in the case of forced production of hydropower plants and wind power plants. At the moment, Kozloduy NPP is the only nuclear power plant in Bulgaria and the main electricity generating plant providing more than one third of the total annual electricity output. The trend of steady increase in photovoltaic and wind power, which will remain in the near future, leads to greater instability and uncertainty of the power system. This requires the construction of balancing capacities to have the ability to ensure the security of the system. Building new balancing power plants and expanding existing, characterized by high level of manoeuvrability stop/start and high rate of change of active working power, will overcome the renewable energy system (RES) increase in the energy mix. It should be noted that these measures are related to the increase of both investments for construction and commissioning, as well as increasing balancing costs. In that connection, there is increasing interest in small modular reactors (SMRs) and their applications. It is reasonable for SMRs to be included in the national power energy capacity, replacing the coal plants and balancing the increase of RES in the future low carbon energy mix. Hydropower can meet flexibility needs at timescales, being complemented by storage technologies. (author)
[en] Pakistan has framed policies to further the development of intermittent renewable resources (IRR) in the country. Consequently, IRR share is steadily growing in the electric power supply system (EPSS). This research work assesses the impacts of IRR on the EPSS in long term future, more specifically on the operation cycle of dispatchable power plants and system economics. The EPSS is analysed considering different shares of IRR in the system. The analysis shows that the EPSS of Pakistan can accommodate up to 50–60 GW IRR at a future demand level of 149 GW, which corresponds to about an 11% share of IRR in the total electricity generation. Beyond that, the country can face both operational and economic challenges in handling the power supply system. (author)
[en] The hybrid system concept integrating an HTGR based nuclear cogeneration plant and variable renewable power sources (solar and wind) is characteristic of three major features: 1) The system provides grid stability by the nuclear plant compensating short and long term changes of the renewable power. This is achieved through nuclear reactor control based on HTGR intrinsic design features. 2) The system can be cost effective as the nuclear reactor remains baseload while varying the ratio of cogenerating products. This is achieved without adding significant complexity or cost to nuclear plant operation. The cost with traditional grid stability measures such as battery and standby power plants otherwise required to back up renewable power is saved. 3) The system provides nuclear plant as peaking power and cogeneration of hydrogen, enabling nuclear energy to do more than the traditional baseload power generation. The 2018 Strategic Energy Policy of Japan calls for promoting innovation of nuclear technology including coexistence with renewable energy and multipurpose such as hydrogen production. Given the significant progress of HTGR development and of renewable energy installation seen in the country, the hybrid system is expected deployable supporting the policy goals around 2030s. (author)