Results 1 - 10 of 348
Results 1 - 10 of 348. Search took: 0.101 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] The aim of this article is to study the impact of a massive diffusion of electric vehicles in the world transportation sector on the lithium market. Lithium, like other strategic materials, has found new markets in the context of the energy transition. Hence, the capacity of those strategic materials to supply these new markets can be questioned. To achieve this goal, we have developed the first detailed global bottom-up energy model, TIAM-IFPEN (Times Integrated Assessment Model-IFPEN) with an endogenous dis-aggregated life-cycle inventories. It would clearly assess the dynamic criticality of strategic materials according to the optimal technology paths with environmental and/or energy solicitations through different approaches: geological, geopolitical, and economic towards a sustainable development. Four scenarios have been run taking into account two climate scenarios (4 deg. C and 2 deg. C) with two shapes of mobility each: a high mobility where we assume the impact of urban dispersal with a huge car dependence/usage, and a low mobility where the idea of a sustainability in mobility is assumed. The penetration of electric vehicle (EV) at the global level would push the demand of cumulated lithium but the results show us an absence of geological criticality. Nevertheless, they have clearly highlighted other different forms of vulnerabilities, whether economic, industrial, geopolitical or environmental. A discussion about the future risk factors applied to the lithium market has been also done at a regional scale to analyse more in-depth the impact of the future global fleet development on lithium market. Our study of this particular strategic material shows that the model could be a useful decision-making tool for assessing future raw material market stresses along with energy transition and could be extended to other critical raw materials for more efficient regional and sectorial screening. (authors)
[en] A key player in the energy transition, EDF group is an integrated energy company, active in all areas of the business: generation, transmission, distribution, trading, energy supply and energy services. As a global leader in low-carbon energy, the Group has developed a diversified generation mix based on nuclear power, thermal energy, hydropower and other renewable energies. This reference document presents: 1- Presentation of EDF group (History and development of the Company; Organisation of the Group; Group strategy; Description of the Group's activities; Legislative and regulatory environment; Research and development, patents and licences; Commercial properties); 2 - Risk factors and control framework (Risks to which the Group is exposed; Control of Group risks and activities; Dependency factors; Legal proceedings and arbitration; Insurance); 3 - Environmental and societal information - human resources (EDF's commitments in the area of sustainable development; EDF's Corporate Social Responsibility Goals; Other areas of the sustainable development policy; Further human resources considerations; Ethics, compliance, tax transparency; Sponsorship; Non-financial rating; Appendices and correspondence tables; Reporting system and methodology; Report by one of the Statutory Auditors, appointed as independent third party); 4 - Corporate governance (Corporate Governance Code; Members and functioning of the Board of Directors; Bodies created by Executive Management; Conflicts of interest, absence of convictions of the members of the administrative bodies and Executive Management, contracts for services; Share-holding by Directors and trading in EDF securities by corporate officers and executives; Compensation and benefits; Report by the Statutory Auditors, prepared in accordance with Article L. 225-235 of the French Commercial Code, on the Report of the Board of Directors on Corporate Governance); 5 - The group's performance in 2018 and financial outlook (Operating and financial review; Subsequent events; Changes in market prices in January and February 2019; Outlook); 6 - Financial statements (Consolidated financial statements; Statutory Auditors' Report on the consolidated financial statements; Financial statements; Statutory Auditors' Report on the financial statements; Table of results for the last five fiscal years; Dividend policy; Significant change in the financial or trading position; Information relating to the allocation of funds raised through Green Bonds issued by EDF); 7 - General information about the company and its capital (General information about the Company; Incorporation documents and articles of association; Information regarding capital and share ownership; Market for the Company's shares; Related-party transactions; Material contracts); 8 - Additional information (Person responsible for the Reference Document and the Certification; Auditors - Statutory Auditors; Documents available to the public - LEI; Financial communication calendar; Concordance tables; Glossary).
[en] This study first reports the basic case of the energy balance assessment for 2018 with a possible shutting down of coal plants by 2022 under some conditions. This provisional assessment already comprises an analysis of sensitivity to a non-achievement of some basic hypotheses for the diagnosis of the security of supply, and the report present the elements for additional analyses for very degraded scenarios. Then, the report addresses the main determining factors of the additional analysis: duration and moment of decennial inspections, EPR commissioning, Landivisiau plant commissioning, project of reconversion of the Cordemais plant (Ecocombust), and the Eleclink interconnection. Results of sensitivity tests for the national supply-demand balance are then presented and discussed: the risk for the security of supply would only concentrate on some hours of the year, and should be absorbed by 2024. The report then discusses various levers of action: consumption management, optimisation of the moment and duration of nuclear reactor stoppage, and the maintenance of the availability of the conversion to biomass of one of two Cordemais units. An additional analysis is applied to the Grand Ouest Region. Indicators of security of supply are then discussed.
[en] The principal activities of EDF Energy Holdings Limited and subsidiaries together during the year continued to be the provision and supply of electricity and gas to commercial, residential and industrial customers, and the generation of electricity through a portfolio of generation assets including nuclear, coal, gas and renewable generation. The Group is also involved in the construction of nuclear new build assets. This document is EDF Energy group annual report for the year 2018. It includes: the Strategic report, the Directors' report, the Directors' responsibilities statement, the independent Auditor's report to the Members of EDF Energy Holdings Limited, the Consolidated income statement, the Consolidated statement of comprehensive income, the Consolidated balance sheet, the Consolidated cash flow statement, the Consolidated statement of changes in equity, the Notes to the consolidated financial statements, the Company balance sheet, the Company statement of changes in equity, and the Notes to the Company financial statements
[en] Climate change is the greatest challenge facing the world in the 21. Century. After a period of growing awareness, things are now starting to change. Citizens are beginning to make their voice heard, for example with the climate marches involving millions of people worldwide. Companies and regions are stepping up their initiatives with solutions - often very localised - to get the energy transition underway, which are having tangible and replicable results. Everywhere, it is becoming clear that we can lower our carbon footprint and care for the environment. EDF, is also taking positive action. As producers of low-carbon electricity, and providers of very low-carbon solutions to customers and regions, EDF is developing products so that everyone can be part of the energy transition, in their own lives, by adopting virtuous behaviour at home, at work, and on the move. EDF is helping new forms of mobility and new ways of producing and consuming electricity to emerge. Electricity can be a vector for sustainable growth and well-being. For EDF, combating climate change requires a two-pronged approach: energy efficiency and low-carbon energy. To achieve these goals, the first solution is to develop low-carbon electricity to replace the fossil fuels used by consumers, households and industry. This will be backed by other solutions, such as renewable heat. This belief forms the foundation of EDF's strategy, which is built around three aspects: innovation serving customers, low-carbon electricity and international expansion. This is perfectly consistent with the focus of the multi-year energy programme, which confirms that France will place greater emphasis on low-carbon electricity in which renewables will be increasingly present alongside a strong base of nuclear power. These clear signals allow EDF to roll out its own climate strategy entirely consistent with the country's targets. This brochure presents EDF's strategy to become an efficient and responsible electricity company championing low-carbon growth: means helping customers to consume less and better, means eradicating CO2, means promoting EDF's low-carbon model
[en] The French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE) ensures a good functioning of electricity and gas markets for the benefit of final consumers and in compliance with energy policy objectives. After an interview of its chairman, and a brief presentation of the CRE, this activity report proposes an overview of the CRE's commitment in international collaboration in Europe and in the world, provides some key figures regarding electric power production and consumption, gas import and consumption, gas and power residential consumption, gas and power imports and exports, and gross markets in France in 2018. The report proposes an overview of the situation of the consumer in front of energy price increase. Then, it addresses aspects related to technological innovation (new meters, development of self-consumption, anticipation of the deployment of electric vehicles), to the CRE support to energy transition, to the evolution of the gas market, and to projects concerning non-interconnected areas which are good examples of energy transition (notably in overseas territories)
[en] Why should geopolitics focus on energy transition issues? In many parts of the world, the decarbonization of the energy and electricity mix has become a priority in order to meet international climate objectives and address local pollution issues. Investments made in renewable energies (REs) represented around $332 billion in 2018 and those needed to meet the targets set in Paris in 2015 at the COP21 to the UNFCCC could reshape the concept of energy security. The expression 'Geopolitics of Renewable Energies' is not widely used at present, and the geopolitical implications of new energy policies and investments in REs are not very well explored. While some authors have begun to consider various transformations linked to the global energy transition dynamic, most research still focuses on the technical aspects of integrating REs into the electricity grid, on national or international energy transition policy scenarios, or on the economic instruments and technologies needed for their deployment. Geopolitical and geographical aspects dealing with the concepts of power, rivalries, security or dependencies associated with these dynamics are rarely considered and analysed. In the context of the energy transition, the deployment of REs seems, at first glance, to be moving away from the traditional geopolitical issues related to energy. Indeed, many REs (wind, solar, small hydropower) come from cyclical and renewable natural sources (tide, wind, sun), unlike non-renewable fossil resources which are more geographically concentrated. The concepts of availability and accessibility, which are central to the traditional definition of energy security, should therefore have less impact in the case of REs. However, the need to re-examine these concepts arises in the context of energy transition policies requiring non-energy resources, such as all nonferrous, ferrous and rare earth metal resources as well as patents on decarbonization technologies, that indirectly influence energy security. Indeed, a State's dependency on fossil resources could be replaced by a reliance on other resources such as strategic metals or structural materials supported by a major technological component, closely linked to intellectual property systems and essential both to understanding the new competitiveness challenges around decarbonization technologies and to defining conceptual frameworks for their deployment in the developing countries. The question of international cooperation on this point is fundamental and is fully integrated into the many challenges of the geopolitics of renewable energies. The growth of these REs in the global energy mix will likely also affect oil-producing countries, in particular through a slow-down in their export volumes, especially of oil and coal after 2040. For them, the issue of demand security could have broad macro-economic implications, particularly in terms of investments, and could eventually require a change in their development model with significant consequences in terms of power on the international scene
[en] Food consumption is responsible for around 28% of total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions (see I4CE study on the issue) Which dietary practices have the largest potential for reducing food-related GHG emissions? Is it possible to reduce food-related emissions while also targeting public health and environmental goals such as the preservation of soils or water quality? Which public policies could be implemented to push consumers towards less GHG intensive diets? In the present study, I4CE summarizes the answers academic literature can bring to these questions. It appears that reducing the intake of animal products has a major mitigation potential, as these products are responsible for almost two thirds of total food-related emissions. Besides, dividing by two the current levels of food waste could enable to reduce food-related emissions by 5%. The origin or the seasonality of products have a limited impact comparatively to total food GHG emissions
[en] This guide first proposes an overview of the methanization sector, and states some definitions. Then, it addresses and discusses the different aspects of a project: good questions to be asked, stages to set up a project, local integration and communication, overview of substrates, biology, process, biogas, development of a co-generation project, development of an injection project, digestates, project economic analysis, regulatory framework, planning in time.