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[en] The development of renewable energy sources is a priority policy of the European Union, including Bulgaria. The country has a diverse power generation mix, including nuclear, thermal power plants and plants using renewables (hydro, wind, solar power plants and biomass). In the Bulgarian energy mix, base capacities includes nuclear power plant and thermal power plants. Unlike the plants involved in regulation frequencies and exchanges, Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) produces low cost electricity but cannot provide secondary regulation for technological considerations. This creates certain difficulties in covering the balance of the power system in periods of minimal load and in the case of forced production of hydropower plants and wind power plants. At the moment, Kozloduy NPP is the only nuclear power plant in Bulgaria and the main electricity generating plant providing more than one third of the total annual electricity output. The trend of steady increase in photovoltaic and wind power, which will remain in the near future, leads to greater instability and uncertainty of the power system. This requires the construction of balancing capacities to have the ability to ensure the security of the system. Building new balancing power plants and expanding existing, characterized by high level of manoeuvrability stop/start and high rate of change of active working power, will overcome the renewable energy system (RES) increase in the energy mix. It should be noted that these measures are related to the increase of both investments for construction and commissioning, as well as increasing balancing costs. In that connection, there is increasing interest in small modular reactors (SMRs) and their applications. It is reasonable for SMRs to be included in the national power energy capacity, replacing the coal plants and balancing the increase of RES in the future low carbon energy mix. Hydropower can meet flexibility needs at timescales, being complemented by storage technologies. (author)
[en] Pakistan has framed policies to further the development of intermittent renewable resources (IRR) in the country. Consequently, IRR share is steadily growing in the electric power supply system (EPSS). This research work assesses the impacts of IRR on the EPSS in long term future, more specifically on the operation cycle of dispatchable power plants and system economics. The EPSS is analysed considering different shares of IRR in the system. The analysis shows that the EPSS of Pakistan can accommodate up to 50–60 GW IRR at a future demand level of 149 GW, which corresponds to about an 11% share of IRR in the total electricity generation. Beyond that, the country can face both operational and economic challenges in handling the power supply system. (author)
[en] The hybrid system concept integrating an HTGR based nuclear cogeneration plant and variable renewable power sources (solar and wind) is characteristic of three major features: 1) The system provides grid stability by the nuclear plant compensating short and long term changes of the renewable power. This is achieved through nuclear reactor control based on HTGR intrinsic design features. 2) The system can be cost effective as the nuclear reactor remains baseload while varying the ratio of cogenerating products. This is achieved without adding significant complexity or cost to nuclear plant operation. The cost with traditional grid stability measures such as battery and standby power plants otherwise required to back up renewable power is saved. 3) The system provides nuclear plant as peaking power and cogeneration of hydrogen, enabling nuclear energy to do more than the traditional baseload power generation. The 2018 Strategic Energy Policy of Japan calls for promoting innovation of nuclear technology including coexistence with renewable energy and multipurpose such as hydrogen production. Given the significant progress of HTGR development and of renewable energy installation seen in the country, the hybrid system is expected deployable supporting the policy goals around 2030s. (author)
[en] A renewable–nuclear energy mix is one of the best options to meet future energy requirements assuring deep decarbonization. Searching for a sustainable solution, numerous nuclear fuel cycle scenarios have been proposed to cope with different alternatives; however, the presence of renewable energies in the mix, as well as the introduction of new technologies for reactors and industrial processes, make the existing codes to require new capabilities. The TR_EVOL code, developed by CIEMAT, is one of the few existing tools capable of estimating key indicators in nuclear fuel cycle scenarios, assessing the presence of renewable energies in the mix. The knowledge of these indicators, along with other variables of the defined energy scenarios, can provide a consistent way for Government, industry and regulators, to plan energy policies for a country. In this paper, TR_EVOL is presented, providing a general description of the code. Furthermore, a fuel cycle assessment and a cost analysis are performed in order to demonstrate TREVOL capabilities. A light water reactor fleet representative of Spain has been chosen to perform the fuel cycle assessment. Results show that the lifetime of the reactors has an impact in the possible reduction in the Pu amount. Some scenarios show a shortage of Pu available for mixed uranium–plutonium oxide fuel fabrication coming from the reprocessing of UO2 spent fuel. Regarding the cost analysis, generation costs of two fuel cycle scenarios show satisfactory results and the estimation of the backend cost results are highly acceptable, taking into account the existing difficulties. (author)
[en] In Turkey, renewable energy potential is very high, but only about 1/3 of total energy production and 1/10 of total energy consumption are represented by renewables. As a result of the increasing energy consumption of Turkey, carbon dioxide & greenhouse gas emissions are increasing. Therefore, it is important to protect the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The geographical location of Turkey leads to use wind, biomass, hydropower, geothermal and solar energies with the combination of other energy technologies for higher performance and better climate change mitigation. Turkey has begun its nuclear program in order to respond to the growing electricity demand, and renewable energies can be effectively used with the nuclear systems for hybridization. Hybrid nuclear– renewable energy systems are combined systems of renewable energy and nuclear reactors to reach better sustainability, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and grid flexibility. In this study, Turkey’s greenhouse gas information, renewable energy sources/fields/installations, and planned nuclear power plants are investigated. Also, the possible hybridization of nuclear and renewable energies considering the solar and wind renewable energy fields and potentials are studied. In this regard, a hybrid nuclear– solar tower collector energy system, a hybrid nuclear–solar parabolic through collector energy system and a hybrid nuclear–wind energy system are investigated for possible installations in Turkey. It is seen that all of these three options can be effectively constructed in Turkey due to high solar and wind potentials. The best hybrid nuclear–wind energy system location(s) can be the Mediterranean Sea and/or Marmara Sea coasts of Turkey, while the best hybrid nuclear–solar energy system locations are the Aegean Sea coast and/or the Mediterranean Sea coasts of Turkey for sustainable and environmentally friendly power production. (author)
[en] The premise of Joint Use Modular Plant (JUMP) Program is to enable both commercial use and research, development and demonstration (RD&D) activities within a single multi-module nuclear plant, wherein a specific module would be allocated to RD&D use via a prearranged agreement between the operating utility and the national laboratory conducting the research activities. The JUMP Program would support increased and expanded use of nuclear energy in the U.S. for various energy applications through the use of one nuclear power module within a NuScale plant for RD&D purposes. In addition to facilitating and demonstrating commercial SMR deployment in the U.S., the primary objective of the JUMP RD&D program is to support multiple current and future DOE-NE RD&D programs. If implemented, the JUMP Program would support demonstration of the safe utilization of nuclear energy for reliable, secure power for resilient microgrids; demonstrate application of nuclear energy beyond the electric sector; provide a relevant test environment for advanced technologies and materials; exercise the supply chain for SMR deployment and help establish new supply chain options; and exercise the regulatory structure beyond traditional large scale light water reactors (LWRs) used solely for electricity. The opportunities made possible by conducting this RD&D using an at-scale nuclear module that is equivalent to a commercial unit, and operating within a larger commercial plant, are expected to provide unique benefit to the research programs. (author)
[en] Tightly coupled nuclear–renewable hybrid energy systems (N–R HESs) are systems that link subsystems to generate dispatchable electricity and produce at least one industrial product from two or more energy resources. Because N–R HESs are designed to produce different products based on the value of those products in markets, their optimal designs and operations can be complex. This paper summarizes some key conclusions from a set of economic analyses of N–R HESs. Each N–R HES use case analysed includes a nuclear reactor, a thermal power cycle to convert nuclear energy into electricity, either a wind or photovoltaic solar subsystem producing electricity, and an industrial process producing an energy or an industrial product. The analyses focused on identifying the optimal configuration and hours of operations for each N–R HES within ranges of hypothetical future electricity price profiles and industrial product prices. Four important insights are drawn from the results of those analyses. (author)
[en] Under the Paris Agreement, OECD countries agreed to aim for a reduction of their greenhouse gas emissions sufficient to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 deg. C above pre industrial levels. This commitment requires a massive effort to de-carbonise energy and electricity generation, a radical restructuring of the electric power sector and the rapid deployment of large amounts of low-carbon generation technologies, in particular nuclear energy and renewable energies such as wind and solar PV. This study assesses the costs of alternative low-carbon electricity systems capable of achieving strict carbon emission reductions consistent with the aims of the Paris Agreement. It analyses several deep decarbonization scenarios to reach the same stringent carbon emission target but characterised by different shares of variable renewable technologies, hydroelectric power and nuclear energy.
[en] Following the first "Green Electricity Market Analysis" in 2014, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has commissioned a further study into more profound aspects of the developments to date and possible future developments of the green electricity market. This present Green Electricity Market Analysis II starts with an overview of the terms used in the green electricity market and represents the status in 2017. The impacts and benefits of the German Renewable Energies Act (EEG) and the voluntary green electricity market and the effects of the added features of the currently available green electricity products are then analysed. Work package 2 provides an overview of the market with guarantees of origin (stakeholders, levels of trade and trading routes, sales volumes, price development and developments on the European guarantees of origin market) by means of a systematic evaluation of the data available in the Register of Guarantees of Origin and qualitative interviews with key players on the market. This chapter also deals with the further development of the guarantee of origin system. A third part focuses on the –empirically measured –attitudes and behaviour patterns of domestic customers and companies with respect to the energy transition in general, and to green electricity products and electricity disclosure in particular. The fourth part of this green electricity market analysis concentrates on the corporate sustainability reporting, and on how meaningful and comparable the data and reports published by the companies are. This was based on a systematic analysis of corporate sustainability reports and the integrated climate protection concepts of municipalities and other regional au-thorities. Recommendations are given for the further development of the legal and sub-legal framework for all the aspects considered.
[de]Das Umweltbundesamt hat nach der ersten "Marktanalyse Ökostrom" im Jahr 2014 eine erneute Studie bzgl. vertiefender Aspekte der bisherigen und zukünftig möglichen Entwicklungen des Ökostrommarkts beauftragt. Diese nun vorliegende Marktanalyse Ökostrom II beginnt mit einer Untersuchung der Begrifflichkeiten im Ökostrommarkt und stellt dessen Status im Jahr 2017 dar. Anschließend wurden die jeweiligen Nutzenwirkungen von EEG und freiwilligem Ökostrommarkt sowie die Wirkungen der Zusatzmerkmale der aktuell erhältlichen Ökostromprodukte analysiert. Arbeitspaket 2 liefert eine Übersicht über den Markt von Herkunftsnachweisen (Akteur*innen, Handelsstufen und Handelswege, Absatzmengen, Preisentwicklung und Entwicklungen auf dem europäischen HKN-Markt). Weiterhin beschäftigt sich dieses Kapitel mit der Weiterentwicklung des HKN-Systems. Ein dritter Teil widmet sich den Einstellungen und Verhaltensweisen der Haushaltskund*innen und Unternehmen in Bezug auf die Energiewende im Allgemeinen sowie Ökostromprodukte und die Stromkennzeichnung im Besonderen. Der vierte Teil dieser Marktanalyse Ökostrom befasst sich mit der Nachhaltigkeitsberichterstattung von Unternehmen und damit, wie aussagekräftig und vergleichbar die von den Unternehmen veröffentlichten Daten und Berichte sind. Dazu wurden systematisch unternehmerische Nachhaltigkeitsberichte und integrierte Klimaschutzkonzepte von Kommunen bzw. weiterer Gebietskörperschaften ana-lysiert. Für alle Bereiche werden Empfehlungen zur Weiterentwicklung der gesetzlichen bzw. untergesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen erstellt.
[en] The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan plans to build a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) to ensure security of energy supply, reduce dependence on imported oil and gas, and to meet future increase in energy demand. Jordan commenced its efforts to energy diversification in 2007. The fact that 98% of Jordan’s energy was imported (in 2007) was not very comforting on all levels, and dependence on one source of energy for electricity was too risky. It is every country’s desire to be energy independent or at least well diversified to a point that energy ripples are well mitigated. Jordan laid down the foundations for the diversification of energy in 2007. As a small economy with few natural resources, reliance on imported energy (oil and natural gas) come coupled with exposure to both supply risk and price risk. The Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) established under Law 42 in 2007 was established to lead the development and implementation of nuclear strategy and to manage the nuclear program in Jordan. JAEC oversaw the implementation of several key and notable projects in Jordan including the SubCritical Assembly, the exploration of uranium in Central Jordan and The Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) — Jordan’s first nuclear reactor. Current projects JAEC is overseeing to include the uranium mining project in Jordan and the nuclear power plant projects under development including SMRs. (author)