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[en] Reporting on the climate action of cities and regions in the context of the pandemic and the renewal of national contributions to the Paris Agreement. Each year, the Climate Chance Observatory proposes a summary of the progress made in terms of climate action and published by cities and regions around the world. Although the absence of consolidated and comparable data remains a challenge, this does not mean that there is no action or mobilisation. The analysis of the remarkable evolution of emissions at the local level, the monitoring of the development of the main international initiatives led by networks of local authorities, and publications of academic and specialised literature, make it possible to draw global trends. The formulation, implementation and monitoring-evaluation of local climate actions is a complex process that requires both the support of States and a proper consideration of the inhabitants' needs. This is why our monitoring is accompanied by analyses of multi-level governance and the localisation of Sustainable Development Goals. The reduction of GHG emissions by European cities is encouraging. However, in a context of mass adoption of carbon neutrality objectives, the monitoring of the impact of local climate policies remains scattered and poorly consolidated, even at the national level. The mobilisation of local governments and the structuring of their climate action is continuing. Although international initiatives show a certain dynamism in Latin America, Europe and North Africa, they do not account for the action of Asian cities and regions. Even in times of Covid-19, local governments remain places of innovation and experimentation for climate policies. At the city level, the densification of services is now seen as the remedy to the health and climate crises. Few of the renewed national contributions to the Paris Agreement mention governance mechanisms that integrate local and sub-national governments, except in Latin America. Their sectoral approach to tackling local emissions reduction masks the potential of spatial planning and local governance. Multi-level governance in G20 countries: our first case studies (Germany, Canada, France, Brazil) show that few cities are subject to climate obligations, whose action relies on the disparate support of federal and federated states. The lack of harmonisation of monitoring methods makes it difficult to integrate the potential of cities into national strategies. Agenda 2030: after a few years in the adoption phase, local governments are embracing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to cushion the socio-economic shocks of climate policies. Despite the lack of funding, driven by the dynamic exchanges between scientists and decision-makers, adaptation to climate change is accelerating within regions and cities.
[en] Regulatory Framework - National Regulations: Decree on licensing of nuclear facilities; About 40 regulation 25 of which are related to the nuclear facilities and activities; All regulations are under revision to ensure conformance with new regulatory infrastructure and framework and to update in accordance with latest IAEA requirements; Five Guidelines for the applicants; About 25 internal procedures, including review and assessment guidelines and Project Management Plans for ongoing authorization projects. Safety Regime - Bilateral Peaceful Use: USA, Canada, France, South Korea, Russia, Argentine, Germany, China, Jordan, Japan. Multilateral Safety Related: Nuclear Safety Convention; Paris Convention on Liability; Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention; Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident; Joint Convention on Management of Spent Fuel and Management of Radioactive Waste (signed but not ratified yet non technical reason). Multilateral Security Related: Treaty on the Non proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (ratification of Amendment to CPPNM is in - Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Safeguards: Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with NPT; Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with NPT.
[en] In recent years, annual electricity consumption in France amounted to around 470 TWh, 90% being decarbonized; at the same time, oil and natural gas consumption has been around 900 TWh and 450 TWh respectively. At present, electricity accounts for only a quarter of energy consumption. Energy savings alone will not be enough to move away from oil and natural gas: as equally anticipated for Germany and Great Britain, French reliance on electricity will have to increase significantly to replace oil and gas consumption. Various recent projections underestimate this growth. However, erroneous assumptions would affect the security of our energy supply and the daily life of the French people; the impacts on the cost of electricity and energy in general, and on the competitiveness of our economy would be considerable. In this position paper, the National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF) proposes a reasonable assessment of electricity demand in 2050. It points out that the European electricity system will be more vulnerable in coming years. It proposes some principles for the choice of economic data to be used in optimisation models. On the basis of these elements, it highlights some key points for managing change in the electricity system.
[fr]La consommation annuelle d'electricite en France a ete d'environ 470 TWh, decarbonee a plus de 90%; dans le meme temps, les consommations de petrole et de gaz naturel ont ete respectivement d'environ 900 TWh et 450 TWh. L'electricite ne represente aujourd'hui que le quart de la consommation d'energie. Les seules economies d'energie ne suffiront pas a sortir du petrole et du gaz naturel: comme le prevoient egalement l'Allemagne et la Grande-Bretagne, le recours a l'electricite en France devra croitre significativement pour se substituer aux consommations de petrole et de gaz. Diverses estimations recentes sous-estiment cette croissance. Or des anticipations erronees affecteraient la securite de notre approvisionnement energetique et la vie quotidienne des francais; les impacts sur le cout de l'electricite et des energies en general, et sur la competitivite de notre economie seraient majeurs. Dans cet avis, l'Academie des technologies propose une evaluation raisonnable de la demande d'electricite en 2050. Elle rappelle que le systeme electrique europeen sera plus fragile dans les prochaines annees. Elle propose quelques principes pour le choix des donnees economiques a retenir dans les optimisations. A partir de ces elements, elle souligne quelques points clefs de la conduite du changement du systeme electrique.
[en] New Publication - TECDOC: Objective is to present the experiences of the Member States in building or expanding their regulatory framework for a nuclear power programme. Outline: IAEA Phased Approach to Build Regulatory Framework; Case Studies from four advanced newcomer countries and one expanding country; Legal framework and international commitments; Development of regulatory body: independence, funding, management, HRD and competency, use of external support, implementation of core regulatory functions, responsibilities in the areas of safety, security and safeguards; Challenges and lessons learned; Analysis of the case studies; Common observations, discussed in a Technical Meeting in June 2019. Key observations - Countries embarking on nuclear power programmes have following several key concepts to build and implement the regulatory framework: Use of IAEA safety standards and security guidance as first iteration for regulatory framework; Gradual development of national regulations and guides; Close cooperation between the Regulatory Bodies of the country of origin and the recipient country including the utilization of demonstrated design and the codes and standards in the country of origin; Use of external technical support; Use of IAEA peer reviews and advisory services as third party reviews.
[en] Regulatory Infrastructure Development - IAEA Assistance: Facilitating implementation of legal instruments; Develop internationally recognized safety standards - Safety fundaments, requirements and guides, - Guidance on establishing safety infrastructure; Provide services for implementation of safety standards - Peer reviews services; Provide quality support and assistance to Member States developing safety infrastructure - Capacity building (training courses, workshops, fellowships and scientific visits); Facilitating exchange of regulatory and operating experience; Coordinate and collaborate effectively with other organizations; Facilitating stakeholders engagement, communication and public understanding
[en] In this paper, translated from an article published by Nuclear Engineering International (NEI), the author presents his views on the future of civil nuclear propulsion: nuclear powered container ships have returned after a decade in the doldrums, nuclear energy already present at sea with more than 200 naval reactors, the development of Floating nuclear power plants, the question of docking of nuclear-powered ships, the possible resistance from incumbent interests at sea in future.
[en] The UAE was the first Newcomer country to start building a large nuclear power plant in three decades: The Nuclear Construction of four units of the Barakah Nuclear Power Plant started simultaneously in 2012 - Sets a role model globally by achieving in a record time requirements needed to ensure its nuclear infrastructure was capable to support the programme through the highest levels on nuclear safety, security and non proliferation; The FANR issued also regulations for onsite as well as offsite nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and the combined onsite and offsite arrangements were put in place. EPREV including the follow up done; The country builds its national capacity for a sustainable operation simultaneously. Simulators in FANR and at site. Online monitoring of plant parameters are available at FANR as well as laboratories and monitoring systems; Highly experienced regulatory experts support the program in headquarter in Abu Dhabi and at site office in Barakah. Steps taken by FANR - Initial phase: The creation of the necessary skills and legally binding requirements for the safe siting, construction and design of the reactors to be built as well as for the needed security and non-proliferation arrangements; Evaluation: FANR evaluated the project based on a two step process, first construction license and then the operating license. This included further innovative design enhancements to address extreme conditions related to severe phenomena inside and outside the reactors. Systematic documentation and knowledge management built at FANR; Enhancement: Environmental effects on the reactors, as well as additional cooling and power supply measures enhanced. UAE specific factors and Fukushima impact. Making the most of synergy: The government signed international agreements & conventions supporting the programme developments; The agreements with the country of origin regulatory bodies which allowed FANR to leverage the work of the Korean regulators to license the reference plant in Korea, the Shin Kori 3 and 4 reactors; Support of the IAEA was instrumental in ensuring that the FANR approach to regulation kept with the best international practices; A pool of international experienced experts work hand in hand with local staff to develop regulations, conduct assessments and do inspections. Also the competence based framework for training and mentoring is essential for sustainability of FANR as a recognized nuclear regulator worldwide; FANR has over 30 agreements with international organizations & other regulatory bodies to exchange technical knowledge & build national capacity.
[en] National nuclear institutes (NNIs) contribute significantly to national development, providing services focused on developing and applying relevant technologies for the public good. While many NNIs provide commercial services and products that generate revenue, some are financially dependent on subsidies from national governments. This publication presents the outcome of a workshop which addressed the challenges for Member States regarding self-reliance and sustainability of their NNIs. Participants discussed efforts and best practices to cope with these challenges. The publication includes positive examples of tools or measures to be used in practical projects and programmes for achieving management goals towards self-reliance and sustainability. Examples of governmental policies in support of self-reliance and sustainability of NNIs are also presented. Finally, the country presentations in this publication show some examples of how NNIs cooperate with public or private stakeholders, providing some insights on how partnership opportunities can be explored.
[en] The energy demand all over the world is increasing rapidly day by day. In traditional power systems, power plants are located far away from the consumer’s premises. This in turn causes a substantial amount of power loss both in transmission and distribution. In general, distribution system has more losses than the losses occurred on the transmission side. It employs that there will be a significant difference between the generated power and the energy consumers that are (physically) far away from the generating stations. Therefore, the electric utilities always remain under stress due to such non negligible amount of losses which has a direct impact on financial management and efficiency of the power system as well. To address this issue different technique have been introduced to reduce line losses and to improve the efficiency. The best among these techniques is line loss reduction through Distributed Generation (DG) which is more effective than the other techniques. In this paper we have taken three 11kV feeders (located at Bannu) as a case study and for the prescribed technique an attempt has been made to increase the efficiency of a system by integrating different capacity of DG into a radial distribution feeder. The results have been analyzed mathematically, however Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP) simulator is used as a test bed. Finally, the obtained results are presented in tabular and graphical form in terms of clearly defined parameters. (author)
[en] Two Decades of Regulatory Oversight Experience: Licensing and Oversight of Seven (7) nuclear power plant units; Licensing of NPP Operating Personnel; Licensing of Design and Manufacturing Organizations; Licensing of diverse types of Radiation Facilities; Training and Capacity building of Regulatory Staff and Stakeholders; Emergency Response Coordination; Environmental Surveillance; International Cooperation. Regulatory Oversight Experience - Some Examples of Safety Improvements: Modification in seismic design of common raft of nuclear island from 0.2 g to 0.3 g by incorporating additional reinforcement (steel rebars) during the construction phase; Inclusion of indications of bypass/inoperable status of all safety system and alarms for engineered safety actuation system in operator workstation; Modification in design to prevent airlock of containment spray and low head safety injection pumps during recirculation phase cooling; Installation of thermal fatigue monitoring system to assess the degradation of safety class piping due to thermal stratification. Challenges: Expansion in the Scope of Regulatory Activities; Building Capacity for Regulating Emerging Technologies; Strengthen Interaction with interested Parties. Way Forward: Perform an effective regulatory oversight to ensure that an acceptable level of safety is maintained by licensed facilities and activities; Strive for continuous improvement monitored through internal audits, self assessment and peer reviews by external organizations; Need to enhance the capacity to keep abreast with the expansion and technological developments; Efforts to be continued for enhancing interaction with stakeholders and international cooperation.