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[en] This article outlines that Germany must redouble its efforts to reach its objectives of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions defined for 2030, and that renewable energies are already representing more than the half of the German energy mix whereas its energy transition is controversial. Thus, the author evokes the huge investments made since 2000, the ambitious program of development of renewable energies, that this development is said to be too slow regarding some aspects. While evoking the example of a village which is considered as a model as far as successful energy transition is concerned, current developments are mentioned regarding infrastructures, notably the important issue of reinforcement of the high voltage network, and ecological and economic issues. The last part more particularly addresses the strategic importance of a local photovoltaic panel production, and actions and supports to phase out coal mining and use
[en] A CIRED team has just published a study on how to meet the demand for electricity without nuclear or fossil fuels. She concluded that it would not cost more than it does today. With the hypotheses of the cost of wind power and photovoltaics that it has retained, it is also possible to calculate that it would cost less than with new nuclear reactors. In addition to the costs of wind and photovoltaic production, the CIRED study retains a set of explicit or implicit assumptions which deserve to be commented on the level of electric power consumption, the stability of the network, the efficiency of the storage means, the reception by the population of tens of thousands of wind turbines and thousands of square kilometers of photovoltaics, the consumption of critical materials and dependence on foreign countries, the loss of a nuclear know-how that the world will need, the vulnerability of an electrical network based on digital communications.
[fr]Une equipe du CIRED vient de publier une etude sur la facon de repondre a la demande d'electricite sans nucleaire ni energie fossile. Elle conclut que cela ne couterait pas plus cher qu'aujourd'hui. Avec les hypotheses de cout de l'eolien et de photovoltaique qu'elle a retenues on peut aussi calculer que cela couterait moins cher qu'avec des nouveaux reacteurs nucleaires. Outre les couts de production eolien et photovoltaique, l'etude du CIRED retient un ensemble d'hypotheses explicites ou implicites qui meritent d'etre commentees sur le niveau de consommation d'electricite, la stabilite du reseau, l'efficacite des moyens de stockage, l'accueil par la population de dizaines de milliers d'eoliennes et de milliers de kilometres carre de photovoltaique, la consommation de materiaux critiques et la dependance a l'egard de l'etranger, la perte d'un savoir faire nucleaire dont le monde aura besoin, la vulnerabilite d'un reseau electrique reposant sur les communications numeriques. (auteur)
[en] The author aims at proposing a credible scenario to face the five mega-waves which are now threatening to engulf us. In his introduction, the author discusses the issue of the future for mankind and for the planet: brief history of collapsology (from the Rome Club to the Anthropocene), the three main swells of opinion (Homo Rex, Deus and Collapsus), the paradigm of historical waves. Then, he addresses the five mega-waves. The first one is climate disruption as the mother of all breaks: climate history, exponential growth of atmospheric CO2, depletion of the carbon sink represented by oceans, the issue of permafrost as a greenhouse gas bomb, evolution of temperatures, sea level rise as a new flood, the challenge for mankind. The second mega-wave relates to energy with the collapse of fossil energies: renewable energies in China, fossil energies as a source for world economic growth, 1970 when oil and gas prevailed, 2020 as the rush for volumes and costs of solar energy, hydrogen, the solar constant and the programmed end of fossil energies by 2040, hydrogen as a vector of the solar constant, the peak oil and the chaos of the end of fossil fuels, the advent of a sustainable and democratic hydrogen civilisation. The third mega-wave relates to demography, from boom to crash: demographic inflection points, the explosion in 1970, the peak birth paradigm in 2020, the evolution of fertility (an educated and urban woman with no child). The fourth mega-wave relates to ecology, from disaster to re-wilding: history of food evolution, behavioural change with the peak meat, agriculture innovation and peak cropland, renewable water and river restoration, development of empty spaces when the population concentrates in metropolises, towards a planet re-wilding. The fifth and last mega-wave relates to hyper-metropolitanization and to the explosion of inequalities: demographic, economic and social consequences of a metropolitanization which is favoured by technology and by environmental and attractiveness issues, hyper-metropolitanization and globalization as vectors of inequality
[en] Whereas the former USSR and Asia are the most nuclear regions in the world (164 reactors), and as their nuclear policies has been put by the Fukushima accident into question again, this paper proposes an overview of the situation of nuclear electric power production in these countries. It appears that Russia and China have a very offensive policy of development of nuclear (sheets are proposed with indications and brief comments on resources and on the composition of the electricity mix, on economy, infrastructures and organisation, and on the nuclear policy for Russia and China). The cases of Armenia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan are described as countries wishing to initiate or to increase their nuclear power production (a sheet is proposed for Ukraine). Then, the paper addresses the cases of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan which reconsider their will to phase out nuclear (sheets for Japan and Korea). A brief synthesis is finally proposed.
[en] Regulatory Framework - National Regulations: Decree on licensing of nuclear facilities; About 40 regulation 25 of which are related to the nuclear facilities and activities; All regulations are under revision to ensure conformance with new regulatory infrastructure and framework and to update in accordance with latest IAEA requirements; Five Guidelines for the applicants; About 25 internal procedures, including review and assessment guidelines and Project Management Plans for ongoing authorization projects. Safety Regime - Bilateral Peaceful Use: USA, Canada, France, South Korea, Russia, Argentine, Germany, China, Jordan, Japan. Multilateral Safety Related: Nuclear Safety Convention; Paris Convention on Liability; Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention; Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident; Joint Convention on Management of Spent Fuel and Management of Radioactive Waste (signed but not ratified yet non technical reason). Multilateral Security Related: Treaty on the Non proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (ratification of Amendment to CPPNM is in - Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Safeguards: Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with NPT; Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with NPT.
[en] After a discussion of the characterization of the security of supply (match between supply and demand on the long and medium terms), and having shown that the planned closure of steerable capacities in Europe should be better taken into account in order to guarantee the security of supply before 2030, this note comments the rate of development of intermittent renewable energies. It notices that these energies have a smaller guaranteed power, outlines that France, Germany and Belgium display the highest deficits of steerable power, that a high share of intermittent renewable energy within the energy mix increases the probability of grid destabilization, and increases the steering complexity, and that it is necessary to adapt grids and to develop demand flexibility. The authors outline that energy transition is poorly coordinated at the European level, which increases this weakening. Some recommendations are finally stated. An appendix presents the main hypotheses, uncertainties and observations related to this study.
[en] After the statement of several propositions and recommendations, this report states and discusses the option of the CESE on the content of the bill project related to the struggle against climate change. It addresses different issues which correspond to different chapters of this bill project: mobility (alternatives to individual vehicles and cleaner vehicles, optimization of goods road transport, better organisation of mobility, limitation of emissions by air transport and development of train-plane inter-modality), housing (building renovation, decrease of energy consumption, struggle against artificialization of soils, protection of ecosystems), food (support to a healthy, sustainable and low-emitting food), consumption (information and education, advertising regulation, development of bulk selling and of returnable glass), production and work (economy greening, adaptation of work to ecological transition, protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, renewable energies for all and by all). Some transverse recommendations are also stated regarding the funding of climate policies, the general design of policies and of governance, and the arrangement for objective follow-up and correction of noticed deviations.
[fr]Le CESE, saisi par le Premier ministre, a examine le projet de loi portant lutte contre le dereglement climatique et renforcement de la resilience face a ses effets. Cette loi doit permettre d'atteindre les objectifs fixes au niveau national et international, dans un esprit de justice sociale. Le CESE s'est prononce a plusieurs reprises sur la politique climatique et a constate que la France ne se situe pas sur les trajectoires prevues par sa Strategie nationale bas-carbone. Ce projet de loi ne parait pas en mesure de redresser la situation climatique et de prendre en compte les inegalites sociales. Alors qu'il faudrait tripler le rythme annuel de reduction des emissions et les diviser par six d'ici 2050, les mesures apparaissent souvent limitees, differees ou soumises a des conditions telles que leur mise en oeuvre a terme rapproche est incertaine. Les rares estimations d'impact fournies font apparaitre leur insuffisance. Le CESE assortit ses analyses de preconisations pour progresser.
[en] This publication comments the content of a report issued by RTE and the IEA on the conditions for a technical feasibility of scenarios exhibiting a high penetration of renewable energies (ENR) in France. It indicates the four conditions to be met for a security of supply and for the integration of very high proportion of renewable energies into a large scale electricity system: stability of the electricity system, supply security, operational reserves, grid development. These four conditions and the associated technical feasibilities stated in the RTE-IAE report are then discussed. The authors finally discuss whether a 100 pc renewable energy objective is actually to be wished.
[en] After having evoked the context (commitments related to the Paris Agreement, ecological transition, objective of carbon neutrality, reduction of the dependence of industry on fossil energies, use of decarbonized inputs to produce heat, and necessary development and deployment of new processes and also new technologies for CO2 capture, storage and valorization); this contribution proposes a critical discussion of the exploitation of hydrogen combustion, of its strengths and weaknesses, of its scientific and technological locks. Then, it discusses the exploitation of the combustion of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures (Hythane): production, strengths and weaknesses, benefits of such a combustion (due to energy properties of natural gas, to energy storage and transport, to CO2 emission reduction). It addresses the case of ammoniac combustion: NH3 production, use as fuel or energy vector, scientific and technological locks.
[en] New Publication - TECDOC: Objective is to present the experiences of the Member States in building or expanding their regulatory framework for a nuclear power programme. Outline: IAEA Phased Approach to Build Regulatory Framework; Case Studies from four advanced newcomer countries and one expanding country; Legal framework and international commitments; Development of regulatory body: independence, funding, management, HRD and competency, use of external support, implementation of core regulatory functions, responsibilities in the areas of safety, security and safeguards; Challenges and lessons learned; Analysis of the case studies; Common observations, discussed in a Technical Meeting in June 2019. Key observations - Countries embarking on nuclear power programmes have following several key concepts to build and implement the regulatory framework: Use of IAEA safety standards and security guidance as first iteration for regulatory framework; Gradual development of national regulations and guides; Close cooperation between the Regulatory Bodies of the country of origin and the recipient country including the utilization of demonstrated design and the codes and standards in the country of origin; Use of external technical support; Use of IAEA peer reviews and advisory services as third party reviews.