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[en] It is now a quarter of a century since nuclear energy was introduced to the public. Its introduction was made in the most dramatic, but unfortunately in the most destructive way - through the use of a nuclear weapon. Since that introduction enormous strides have been made in developing the peaceful applications of this great and versatile force. Because these strides have always been overshadowed by the focusing of public attention on the military side of the atom, the public has never fully understood or appreciated the gains and status of the peaceful atom. This booklet is an attempt to correct, in some measure, this imbalance in public information and attitude. It is a compilation of remarks, and excerpts of remarks, that I have made in recent years in an effort to bring to the public the story of the remarkable benefits the peaceful atom has to offer man. This is a story that grows with the development and progress of the peaceful atom. It must be told so that we can learn to use the power of nuclear energy wisely and through this use help to build a world in which the military applications of the atom will never again be a threat to mankind
[en] The marketing possibilities of natural and treated woods are compared. A description is given of the advantages and disadvantages of these materials, together with the effects that improved quality might have on marketing prospects. Extensive reference tables illustrate the change in supply and demand over a number of years. (author)
[en] The author used a method starting with water and power demand curves; this leads to the rational allocation of production costs to water and power within a given market. The power demand curve is needed as it seems improbable to sell at a constant price the enormous quantity of electricity produced by a dual purpose plant. Criteria based on principles of classical economics, help to select objectively desalination methods and plant sizes. On these criteria, normative methods for tariffing action of water and power can be based, while adhering as closely as possible to structure of demand. Examples of such criteria are the maximum profit of the supplier or the maximum satisfaction of the consumers taken collectively. In the first case marginal costs must be equated to marginal revenue, in the second one marginal cost to marginal satisfaction (theory of surpluses). The plant size often determines the choice of desalination process. Therefore the shape of the water demand curve and the economic criterion adopted (public or private ownership, capital restrictions etc.) often determine in this way both size and type of plant. Before deciding on the desalination technique, market surveys and rather subtle economic analyses are therefore necessary. (author)
[fr]Le probleme est presente en introduisant la notion de courbes de demande d'eau et d'electricite, ce qui permet d'aboutir a un partage rationnel des couts de revient entre eau et electricite dans ]e cadre d'un marche. L'objet de l'etude est, a partir des principes de l'economie classique, de donner des criteres objectifs de selection des dimensions des installations et des techniques de dessalement et d'en deduire une methode normative de tarification des deux produits lies: eau et electricite, en collant autant que possible a la structure de la demande. Ces criteres sont en particulier, soit le maximum de benefice de l'exploitant, soit le maximum de satisfaction des utilisateurs, c'est-a-dire la realisation d'un optimum collectif. Ils se traduisent soit par l'egalite des couts marginaux et des recettes marginales, soit par l'egalite des couts marginaux et des satisfactions marginales (theorie des surplus). Les dimensions des installations determinant souvent le choix des procedes on peut conclure de ces considerations que ces choix sont etroitement fonction: - de la forme de la courbe de demande d'eau - du critere economique choisi (gestionnaire public ou prive, limitation des investissements,...). Ceci rend donc indispensable des etudes de marche accompagnees d'une analyse economique assez fine, prealablement a toute decision du choix des techniques de dessalement. (auteur)
[en] A close examination of the local supply and demand for fresh water is involved when considering a sea water desalination plant in a given region. This examination makes it possible in most cases to undertake a thorough study of the natural resources, resulting in the use of desalination being rejected. After confirming this fact by precise examples, the authors consider that the preliminary study should be extended, taking into account the complementary character of natural resources and desalination systems: contribution to peak demand, contribution to base demand. This analysis results in a classification of the main user regions according to certain economic criteria defining their suitability for the use of desalination processes. (author)
[fr]Envisager une installation d'eau de mer dans une region donnee, entraine un examen attentif de l'offre et de la demande locale en eau douce. Cet examen permet de conduire dans la plupart des cas a une etude approfondie des ressources naturelles qui aboutit a ecarter le recours au dessalement. Apres avoir constate ce fait, par des exemples precis, les auteurs estiment que l'on doit pousser plus loin l'etude preliminaire en tenant compte de la complementarite entre les ressources naturelles et les systemes de dessalement: contribution a la demande de pointe, contribution a la demande de base. Cette analyse conduit a classer les regions utilisatrices essentielles selon certains criteres economiques definissant leur aptitude a l'utilisation des procedes de dessalement. (auteur)
[en] A map of Colombia, a country located in the northern part of South America, is shown. With an extension of almost 1.4 million square kilometers, most of its 19.0 million inhabitants; live in the central and western regions while almost half of the territory (the eastern plains) is still largely unsettled and undeveloped. Although the Colombian economy has been dependent mainly on agricultural products and the coffee production has been the primary, source of foreign currency, it is clear now that an industrialization process is beginning. The effects of each a process can already be measured in terms of improved standard of living and in a more steady monetary situation.
[en] Pakistan is one of the very few developing countries which have nuclear power plants actually under construction. The country has a unique geographical position in the sense that it consists of two provinces, namely East Pakistan and West Pakistan, which are physically separated by over 1000 miles of Indian territory. Because of the physical separation of the two provinces, the power systems and the development programmes in the two provinces are considered separately.
[en] The Agency's latest survey of power and research reactors in Member States shows that by the end of 1969 there will be 479 reactors operating. Of these, 105 are power reactors generating nearly 20 000 megawatts of electricity in 15 countries. The other 374 are for research, testing and training purposes in 48 countries. (author)
[en] Experience with experimental fast reactors and the construction of larger prototypes, though limited to few countries, is supported by research on specific aspects in a number of others. Examination of results at an Agency symposium in Monaco during March demonstrated confidence that these reactors will come into use after 1980, will lead to much cheaper generation of electricity, and to much greater economy in using the world's uranium resources. (author)
[en] Dr. Sigvard Eklund, Director General of the IAEA, addressed the 49th Session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, in Geneva, on 9 July. In his speech he drew attention to 'a major event . . . which has had an immediate effect on the work of the IAEA and which could, in the future, affect the whole structure of international relations': the coming into force of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons earlier this year. (author)
[en] Prospects for the development of small and medium power reactors were reviewed at a symposium attended by more than 150 participants from 35 countries and five international organizations, held in Oslo in mid-October. Discussion centred on the current technical and economic status of reactors having an output of more than about 500 MWe, which might find application in the comparatively small electricity supply grids which are generally associated with areas where industrialization is not very far advanced. (author)