Results 1 - 10 of 30
Results 1 - 10 of 30. Search took: 0.024 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] The author used a method starting with water and power demand curves; this leads to the rational allocation of production costs to water and power within a given market. The power demand curve is needed as it seems improbable to sell at a constant price the enormous quantity of electricity produced by a dual purpose plant. Criteria based on principles of classical economics, help to select objectively desalination methods and plant sizes. On these criteria, normative methods for tariffing action of water and power can be based, while adhering as closely as possible to structure of demand. Examples of such criteria are the maximum profit of the supplier or the maximum satisfaction of the consumers taken collectively. In the first case marginal costs must be equated to marginal revenue, in the second one marginal cost to marginal satisfaction (theory of surpluses). The plant size often determines the choice of desalination process. Therefore the shape of the water demand curve and the economic criterion adopted (public or private ownership, capital restrictions etc.) often determine in this way both size and type of plant. Before deciding on the desalination technique, market surveys and rather subtle economic analyses are therefore necessary. (author)
[fr]Le probleme est presente en introduisant la notion de courbes de demande d'eau et d'electricite, ce qui permet d'aboutir a un partage rationnel des couts de revient entre eau et electricite dans ]e cadre d'un marche. L'objet de l'etude est, a partir des principes de l'economie classique, de donner des criteres objectifs de selection des dimensions des installations et des techniques de dessalement et d'en deduire une methode normative de tarification des deux produits lies: eau et electricite, en collant autant que possible a la structure de la demande. Ces criteres sont en particulier, soit le maximum de benefice de l'exploitant, soit le maximum de satisfaction des utilisateurs, c'est-a-dire la realisation d'un optimum collectif. Ils se traduisent soit par l'egalite des couts marginaux et des recettes marginales, soit par l'egalite des couts marginaux et des satisfactions marginales (theorie des surplus). Les dimensions des installations determinant souvent le choix des procedes on peut conclure de ces considerations que ces choix sont etroitement fonction: - de la forme de la courbe de demande d'eau - du critere economique choisi (gestionnaire public ou prive, limitation des investissements,...). Ceci rend donc indispensable des etudes de marche accompagnees d'une analyse economique assez fine, prealablement a toute decision du choix des techniques de dessalement. (auteur)
[en] A close examination of the local supply and demand for fresh water is involved when considering a sea water desalination plant in a given region. This examination makes it possible in most cases to undertake a thorough study of the natural resources, resulting in the use of desalination being rejected. After confirming this fact by precise examples, the authors consider that the preliminary study should be extended, taking into account the complementary character of natural resources and desalination systems: contribution to peak demand, contribution to base demand. This analysis results in a classification of the main user regions according to certain economic criteria defining their suitability for the use of desalination processes. (author)
[fr]Envisager une installation d'eau de mer dans une region donnee, entraine un examen attentif de l'offre et de la demande locale en eau douce. Cet examen permet de conduire dans la plupart des cas a une etude approfondie des ressources naturelles qui aboutit a ecarter le recours au dessalement. Apres avoir constate ce fait, par des exemples precis, les auteurs estiment que l'on doit pousser plus loin l'etude preliminaire en tenant compte de la complementarite entre les ressources naturelles et les systemes de dessalement: contribution a la demande de pointe, contribution a la demande de base. Cette analyse conduit a classer les regions utilisatrices essentielles selon certains criteres economiques definissant leur aptitude a l'utilisation des procedes de dessalement. (auteur)
[en] A map of Colombia, a country located in the northern part of South America, is shown. With an extension of almost 1.4 million square kilometers, most of its 19.0 million inhabitants; live in the central and western regions while almost half of the territory (the eastern plains) is still largely unsettled and undeveloped. Although the Colombian economy has been dependent mainly on agricultural products and the coffee production has been the primary, source of foreign currency, it is clear now that an industrialization process is beginning. The effects of each a process can already be measured in terms of improved standard of living and in a more steady monetary situation.
[en] Pakistan is one of the very few developing countries which have nuclear power plants actually under construction. The country has a unique geographical position in the sense that it consists of two provinces, namely East Pakistan and West Pakistan, which are physically separated by over 1000 miles of Indian territory. Because of the physical separation of the two provinces, the power systems and the development programmes in the two provinces are considered separately.
[en] The first nuclear power project in Taiwan will be a 500 MW class unit scheduled for completion by the end of 1975. (Refer to Taipower's power development programme. By that time, the system will already be large enough to accommodate a nuclear installation). As Taipower is a public utility, and utilities are always very conservative, the reactor selected by Taipower is of the light water type.
[en] The subject of my lecture is the use of nuclear energy for sea water desalination. During this study course this is the only lecture we will have on desalination and therefore we have many points to cover. I propose to cover these points in the following order: (1) Determining the feasibility, of nuclear desalination (2) Nuclear desalination and plant cycles (3) Additional nuclear desalination plant considerations and recent desalination developments. In several cases, whore there is only time for a summary, there is a more complete treatment in the Appendices.
[en] In dual purpose nuclear power stations producing both electricity and desalted water/ high pressure steam at about 250°C enters a back pressure turbine and is discharged at about 125°C into the first, stage, of a multistage sea water evaporator. Since these two temperatures are essentially fixed for technical and economic reasons, the ratio of electricity and water produced is also fixed. At least it is under optimum design conditions. This situation is acceptable as long as both products can be fully marketed; however, in some applications more water is needed than electricity or vice versa. When the power requirement dominates, water production can be reduced without much of an economic penalty by using an extraction turbine rather than a back pressure turbine. On the other hand, when the water requirement dominates, reduction in electricity output by bypassing steam or by some other device appreciably increases the cost of desalted water. Studies indicate that water costs might be increased by one-third in a ''water only'' plant. To avoid this dilemma, it was suggested several years ago that when there is no external, market for the electricity produced in a dual purpose plant it might be advantageous to use the electricity onsite for the production of industrial chemicals and metals. Thus the idea of the Agro-Industrial Complex was born.
[en] The context in which this paper is set down concerns nuclear power, and this paper complements a number of more specialist treatments of aspects of the subject. Although it is, in consequence, perhaps to be expected that the discussion given would be specifically for a nuclear power plant the principles and methods of working involved apply equally to all kinds of power station projects though the actual fields of specialisation of team members, and the topics.of major discussion may vary from one project to another.
[en] Plowshare is a research and development program of the atomic Energy Commission. It has not yet achieved its goal of becoming a viable commercial enterprise, but it has achieved some important research advances. Let us start by mentioning one of those important achievements. More than five years ago, and before it was fashionable to talk knowingly of ecological system studies, the Atomic Energy Commission, under its Plowshare program, was funding a broad and deep ecology study. I refer to the study on the 'Environment of the Cape Thompson Region, Alaska.' The Plowshare Program is but one of several of our major programs that have been centrally affected by problems of public acceptance and fiscal support
[en] First, the point of applying Dynamic Programming to optimization and Operational Research problems in chemical industries are recalled, as well as the conditions in which a dynamic program is illustrated by a sequential graph. A new algorithm for the determination of sub-optimal politics in a sequential graph is then developed. Finally, the applications of sub-optimality concept is shown when taking into account the indirect effects related to possible strategies, or in the case of stochastic choices and of problems of the siting of plants... application examples are given. (authors)
[fr]On rappelle d'abord l'interet de la Programmation Dynamique dans les problemes d'optimisation et de Recherche Operationnelle dans les industries chimiques, et les conditions de representation d'un programme dynamique par un graphe sequentiel. On expose ensuite un nouvel algorithme de determination de politiques sous-optimales dans un graphe sequentiel. On montre enfin les applications du concept de sous-optimalite a la prise en compte d'effets indirects lies aux politiques possibles, aux choix dans l'aleatoire, a des problemes de localisation optimale d'usines... et on donne des exemples d'utilisation. (auteurs)