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[en] After an introduction which outlines the interest of a development of energy efficiency and of sources of renewable energy, this report proposes a comparative overview of situations in different countries and more particularly European countries (international situation for energy efficiency, energy intensities in Europe, supports for sources of renewable energies). Then, it more specifically addresses energy efficiency by outlining the evolutions of the French policy and the necessity of defining high objectives, but also by outlining opportunities, programmes and measures in different sectors (industry, transports, housing and office building, management of electric power demand). The next part addresses sources of renewable energies (sources for power production and thermal sources), and states a set of detailed propositions to develop these different sources and sectors. Cooperation and export aspects are then addressed (with central and eastern European countries, with developing countries). Several appendices are proposed: data on the international energy situation, comparison of energy intensities among European countries between 1980 and 1998, international comparison of energy efficiency in terms of legislation and for the different main sectors, and international comparison of sources of renewable energies (France, UK, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Sweden, Netherlands, California).
[en] As shown by this study, subsidies and advantages awarded to nuclear and fossil energies are prevailing in the French energy sector, notably with respect to renewable energies and energy savings. This study indeed aimed at assessing direct and indirect budgetary supports to the different forms of energy in France in order to assess the role of the French State in subsidies, taxing and support to industries. It appears that the support to renewable energies represents only between one and four per cent of that to nuclear energy. The study also notices that pollutions and consequences of accidents are not taken into account, that supports to renewable energies are badly managed, and that the evolution is very slow. After a definition of subsidies and supports, the report addresses different aspects related to renewable energies (R and D, ADEME's intervention, financing support for electrification projects, taxing, tax exemption for biofuels), to electro-nuclear energy (direct and indirect subsidies), to natural gas (R and D, investments of collectivities in gas networks, commercial supports), to coal (subsidies for research, for production and for reconversion, purchases order between EDF and Charbonnages de France, external costs paid by the community), to oil (direct subsidies, indirect subsidies in transports), to actions for the management of energy demand, and to electric power (direct subsidies, power in overseas districts and in Corsica)
[en] This document relates chronologically the political decisions, the individual and collective opinions, the demonstrations, meetings and various actions that took place until 1999 concerning the Golfech nuclear power plant. The opposition against the setting up of this nuclear facility represents the biggest conflict that took place in the SW of France during the last decades. The document treats also of the development of the nuclear industry in France, of its institutional, political and economic structures, and of the different types of resistances it has generated. Some specific topics are addressed as well, like the problem of high-voltage power lines, of water consumption and management, and of the management of radioactive wastes. This publication was made using a large mass of documents (texts and illustrations) from various sources and published until 1999.
[en] This analysis takes stock of the present day economic situation of the French nuclear park and presents some scenarios of its evolution depending on reactors lifetime extension and fuel recycle policy choices. First chapter makes a material balance sheet of the present day nuclear park: hypotheses about the nuclear park and the scenarios, set up of a methodology for the materials flux evaluation, hypotheses about: the nuclear park lifetime extension, the nuclear park performance and the performance of fuels, the uranium and plutonium recycling, the reactor decommissioning and dismantling procedure. The impact on the whole fuel cycle is analysed. The second chapter presents the economic situation of the present day nuclear park: expenses during the 1970-1998 period, future expected expenses including the other related nuclear facilities. The last chapter is a collection of fact sheets about: the French nuclear park, the world nuclear park, the performance of a nuclear park, the lifetime of the present day nuclear park, the dismantling of nuclear facilities, the UOx and MOx assemblies burnup, the plutonium case, the fuel cycle, a review of the PEON and DIGEC consultative studies (1964-1997), and the nuclear R and D expenses.