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[en] Since 2003 Ernst and Young team has been releasing quarterly data that ranks national renewable energy markets, and their suitability for individual technologies. The Country Attractiveness Indices now track the relative attractiveness of 30 countries' renewable energy markets across a selection of technologies each quarter. The Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices publication scores and comments on various technologies, including: on-shore wind, off-shore wind, solar PV, solar CSP, biomass, and geothermal.
[en] The Dutch Air Quality Collaboration program (NSL) is introducing a new approach to complex issues. This programmatic approach may offer a solution, but is still relatively new in spatial policymaking. What can we learn about the success and failure aspects of programs from the approach at NSL?.
[nl]Het Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogramma Luchtkwaliteit (NSL) introduceert een nieuwe aanpak voor complexe problemen. Deze programmatische aanpak kan hiervoor een oplossing zijn, maar is relatief nieuw in de ruimtelijke beleidspraktijk. Wat leert de aanpak bij het NSL ons over succes- en faalfactoren van programma's?.
[en] CO2 capture and storage can ensure that stringent climate change mitigation targets are achieved more cost-effectively. However, in order to ensure a substantial role for CCS, deployment of CCS is required on a significant global scale by 2020. Currently, the CDM is the only international instrument that could provide a financial incentive for CCS in developing countries. In December 2010 it was decided that CCS could in principle be eligible under the CDM, provided a number of issues are resolved, including non-permanence, liability, monitoring and potential perverse outcomes. The latter issue relates to the concern that that CCS projects could flood the CDM market, thereby crowding out other technologies that could be considered more sustainable. This report, therefore, aims to quantify the possible impact of CCS on the CDM market, in order to assess the relevance of the CDM market objection. However, the analysis in the report is also valid for the role of CCS in other types of international support mechanisms. The first result of this study is a marginal abatement cost curve (MAC) for CCS in developing countries for 2020. Based on existing MAC studies, the IEA CCS Roadmap and an overview of ongoing and planned CCS activities, we compiled three scenarios for CCS in the power, industry and upstream sector, as shown below. The major part of the potential below $30/tCO2eq (70 - 100 MtCO2/yr) is in the natural gas processing sector. Using the MACs for the CDM market, we estimate the economic potential for CCS projects to be 4-19% of the CDM credit supply in 2020. The potential impact inclusion of CCS in the CDM may have is assessed by using several possible CER supply and demand scenarios, as well as scenarios related to market price responsiveness and the role of CDM in the post-2012 carbon market. The impact is estimated to be between $0 and $4 per tonne of CO2-eq, with three out of four scenarios indicating the lower part of this range.
[en] The Dutch government has appointed 9 top sectors in which the Netherlands holds a strong global position. One of these sectors is the energy sector. The main question in this advice is how the government can support the Dutch energy sector optimally to fully deploy economic opportunities.
[nl]Het Kabinet heeft 9 topsectoren aangewezen waarin Nederland wereldwijd sterk is. Een van die sectoren is de energiesector. Centrale vraag in dit advies is op welke wijze de overheid de Nederlandse energiesector optimaal kan ondersteunen om economische kansen te benutten.
[en] In current energy regulation, legal aspects of smart grids and smart meters seemed to be limited to the protection of the privacy of the energy users in the mandatory rollout of the smart meter. The current status of the implementation is that the small-scale rollout will start on 1 January 2012. According to the author, the current regulatory framework is insufficient for actual implementation of a smart grid. According to him it is possible to mark a testing ground smart grid as a closed distribution system as is to be implemented according to the Electricity Directive 2009/72.
[nl]Binnen de huidige energieregulering leken de juridische aspecten van smart grids en slimme meters geruime tijd beperkt tot de bescherming van de privacy van de energiegebruikers bij de verplichte uitrol van de slimme meter. De huidige stand van de implementatie is dat de kleinschalige uitrol start per 1 januari 2012. Er zijn echter meer juridische aspecten dan dat. Volgens de auteur is het huidige regulerende kader ontoereikend voor een daadwerkelijke implementatie van een smart grid. Volgens hem is het mogelijk een proeftuin smart grid aan te merken als gesloten distributiesysteem, zoals dat in gevolge de Elektriciteitsrichtlijn 2009/72 zal worden geimplementeerd.
[en] Taxes on energy products, electricity and CO2 are compared for a number of EU countries (Germany, Belgium, Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands) with special focus on the fiscal, economic and environmental impacts of the revision of the European Energy Directive for the Netherlands.
[nl]De belastingen op energieproducten, elektriciteit en CO2 worden vergeleken voor een aantal EU-lidstaten (Duitsland, Belgie, Denemarken, Verenigd Koninkrijk, Frankrijk, Luxemburg, Spanje, Zweden en Nederland) met speciale aandacht voor de fiscale-, economische- en milieugevolgen van de herziening van de Europese Energiebelastingrichtlijn voor Nederland.
[en] There is increasing evidence to suggest that adaptation to the inevitable is as relevant to climate change policymaking as mitigation efforts. Both mitigation and adaptation, as well as the unavoidable damage occurring both now and that is predicted to occur, all involve costs at the expense of diverse climate change victims. The allocation of responsibilities - implicit in terms of the burden-sharing mechanisms that currently exist in public and private governance - demands recourse under liability law, especially as it has become clear that most companies will only start reducing emissions if verifiable costs of the economic consequences of climate change, including the likelihood of liability, outweigh the costs of taking precautionary measures. This vitally important book asks: Can the precautionary principle make uncertainty judiciable in the context of liability for the consequences of climate change, and, if so, to what extent? Drawing on the full range of pertinent existing literature and case law, the author examines the precautionary principle both in terms of its content and application and in the context of liability law. She analyses the indirect means offered by existing legislation being used by environmental groups and affected individuals before the courts to challenge both companies and regulators as responsible agents of climate change damage. In the process of responding to its fundamental question, the analysis explores such further questions as the following: (a) What is the role of the precautionary principle in resolving uncertainty in scientific risk assessment when faced with inconclusive evidence, and how does it affect decision-making, particularly in the regulatory choices concerning climate change? To this end, what is the concrete content of the precautionary principle?; (b) How does liability law generally handle scientific uncertainty? What different types of liability exist, and how are they equipped to handle a climate change liability claim?; (c) What type of liability is best suited for precautionary measures or a lack thereof? Can the application of the precautionary principle make a difference to the outcomes of climate change liability claims? In order to draw conclusions concerning the legal uncertainties posed by climate change, the author draws examples from national legislations representative of the various legal systems, as well as from existing treaties. General rules and obligations relevant to climate change liability are examined, and a selection of actual legal cases from around the world concerning climate change, be it actual liability claims or litigation indirectly relevant to a claim, is also presented. As an overview of the different legal challenges created by climate change liability, this book is without peer. The practical meaning and impact of these findings for lawyers (whether corporate or activist), for regulators and policymakers, and for decision-makers in governmental bodies and private companies is immeasurable.
[en] Due to the rapid growth in demand for certain materials, compounded by political risks associated with the geographical concentration of the supply of them, a shortage of these materials could be a potential bottleneck to the deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. In order to assess whether such shortages could jeopardise the objectives of the EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), an improved understanding of these risks is vital. In particular, this report examines the use of metals in the six low-carbon energy technologies of SET-Plan, namely: nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electricity grids. The study looks at the average annual demand for each metal for the deployment of the technologies in Europe between 2020 and 2030. The demand of each metal is compared to the respective global production volume in 2010. This ratio (expressed as a percentage) allows comparing the relative stress that the deployment of the six technologies in Europe is expected to create on the global supplies for these different metals. The study identifies 14 metals for which the deployment of the six technologies will require 1% or more (and in some cases, much more) of current world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. These 14 metals, in order of decreasing demand, are tellurium, indium, tin, hafnium, silver, dysprosium, gallium, neodymium, cadmium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium and selenium. The metals are examined further in terms of the risks of meeting the anticipated demand by analysing in detail the likelihood of rapid future global demand growth, limitations to expanding supply in the short to medium term, and the concentration of supply and political risks associated with key suppliers. The report pinpoints 5 of the 14 metals to be at high risk, namely: the rare earth metals neodymium and dysprosium, and the by-products (from the processing of other metals) indium, tellurium and gallium. The report explores a set of potential mitigation strategies, ranging from expanding European output, increasing recycling and reuse to reducing waste and finding substitutes for these metals in their main applications.
[en] A study was dedicated to examining whether the heat companies Eneco New Energy, Essent Heat and Nuon Heat acted strategically by establishing too high internal purchase prices for the production of heat with the aim of lowering the returns of heat supply. Based on their study, the Office of Energy Regulation of the Netherlands Competition Authority NMa concludes that there are no indications that Eneco, Essent and Nuon engaged in strategic actions.
[nl]Er is onderzocht of de warmtebedrijven Eneco New Energy, Essent Warmte en NUON Warmte strategisch hebben gehandeld door te hoge interne inkoopprijzen voor de productie van warmte vast te stellen, met als doel de rendementen op warmtelevering te verlagen. Op basis van het onderzoek concludeert de Energiekamer NMa dat er geen aanwijzingen zijn dat Eneco, Essent en Nuon strategisch hebben gehandeld.
[en] Our energy system, which is one of the pillars of the Dutch society, will probably be subjected to drastic changes in the coming decades. It will become a difficult and painful process at times. Policy makers have the task of directing these changes with a clear view on opportunities and threats. This guide aims to offer Dutch policy makers some strategic insights and tools.
[nl]Onze energiehuishouding, 1 van de pijlers van de Nederlandse samenleving, zal de komende decennia drastische veranderingen ondergaan. Dat zal een bij tijd en wijle moeizaam en pijnlijk proces worden. Aan beleidsmakers de taak die veranderingen te regisseren met een helder oog voor kansen en bedreigingen. Deze gids beoogt Nederlandse beleidsmakers voor die taak enkele strategische inzichten en handvatten te bieden.