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[en] The dialogue among the decision makers and stakeholders is a crucial part of any decision-making processes, particularly in case of integrated transportation planning and planning of green infrastructure where a multitude of actors is present. Although the theory of public participation is well-developed after several decades of research, there is still a lack of practical guidelines due to the specificity of public participation challenges. The paper presents a model of public participation for integrated transport and green infrastructure planning for international project TRANSGREEN covering the area of five European countries – Slovakia, Czech Republic, Austria, Hungary and Romania. The challenge of the project is to coordinate the efforts of public actors and NGOs in international environment in oftentimes precarious projects of transport infrastructure building and developing of green infrastructure. The project aims at developing and environmentally-friendly and safe international transport network. The proposed public participation procedure consists of five main steps – spread of information (passive), collection of information (consultation), intermediate discussion, engagement and partnership (empowerment). The initial spread of information is a process of communicating with the stakeholders, informing and educating them and it is based on their willingness to be informed. The methods used in this stage are public displays, newsletters or press releases. The second step of consultation is based on transacting the opinions of stakeholders to the decision makers. Pools, surveys, public hearings or written responses are examples of the multitude of ways to achieve this objective and the main principle of openness of stakeholders. The third step is intermediate discussion where all sides of are invited to a dialogue using the tools such as public meetings, workshops or urban walks. The fourth step is an engagement based on humble negotiation, arbitration and mediation. The collaborative skill needed here is dealing with conflicts. The final step in the procedure is partnership and empowerment employing methods as multi-actor decision making, voting or referenda. The leading principle is cooperation. In this ultimate step, the stakeholders are becoming decision makers themselves and the success factor here is continuous evaluation. (paper)
[en] Solar energy is conceivably the largest source of renewable energy at our disposal, but vital advances are expected to make solar cells economically viable. Biodegradable and flexible solar cells are currently under extensive investigation for environmentally-friendly electronic applications. Biomaterials based solar cell is emerging due to their sustainable, scalable, abundant, renewable, and environmentally-friendly energy production. This review highlights recent research progress in the emerging group of biomaterials and their integration for flexible solar cell devices. The more emphasis is given to the absolute recyclable solar cell technology, processing conditions and optimized processing conditions to produce a high amount of energy. This review briefly describes the recent progress in these classes of material, covering substrates and semiconductors. A prominent demand still exists for a next-generation of flexible, biodegradable and biocompatible solar cell substrate for ultimate energy generation application.
[en] The research objective are: (1) Analyse the capacity needs of the wind energy system based on the parameters of energy requirements, the ability of the inverter, generator capability and the ability of the local wind. (2) Generate a simulate diesel-wind hybrid power plants for Kupang city and every district in Timor island; (3) Generate an optimization of wind-diesel hybrid power plant for Kupang city and districts in Timor island; (4) Generate a scheme wind-diesel hybrid power plant for Kupang city and every district in Timor island. The method used in this research is quantitative method with the approach of simulation, optimization and sensitivity analysis used HOMER application program, i.e.: (1) simulation system of diesel-wind hybrid power plant; (2) optimization system of diesel-win hybrid generator, and (3) the sensitivity analysis system diesel-wind hybrid power plant. Conclusion of this research are: (1) Simulation in Kupang city and districts of Kupang are wind turbines 20 KW with generator capacity of 71.7 KW. Optimization result of wind-energy contribution of only 7% and ideal price of US $ 0.47 to produce wind turbines of 20,000 KWH/yr; (2) Simulation in South Central Timor (TTS) district is wind turbines 3 KW with generator capacity of 11.4 KW. The result of optimization of wind-energy contribution of only 9% and ideal price of US $ 0.525 to produce wind turbines of 1.165 KWH/yr; (3) Simulation in North Central Timor (TTU) district is wind turbines 1 KW with generator capacity of 7.62 KW. Optimization result of wind-energy contribution of only 4% and ideal price of US $ 0.53 to produce wind turbines of 1.150 KWH/yr;(4) Simulation in Belu districts is wind turbines 10 KW with generator capacity of 12.1 KW. Optimization result of wind-energy contribution of only 22% and ideal price of US $ 0.48 to produce wind turbines of 1.210 KWH/yr. (paper)
[en] Japan faces many social and environmental problems especially population aging, social communication degradation and decreasing of agricultural land. Kitakyushu city is one big city in Japan, which the old people take 30% in population, while younger people are moving to the big cities for working and other desires. it is common that Japanese people is less and less communicate with other people and tend to curl up in their personal space due to the modern stressful life. Besides, a big ratio of Japanese farmers recently did not do the farm work anymore, leading to a considerable abandoned agricultural land. So, there should be done to improve the lives of older people, heal social communication, or revive the barren land. The designing site is placed in Hibikino area, Kitakyushu city, Japan, a farmland area operated by Japan Agriculture Association where citizens can hire some slots to plant vegetables themselves. However, this placed does work effectively when only a few people come to hire the land. This research method is a descriptive study aimed to obtain qualitative data. The purpose of this study was to create a design idea the agricultural community space where parents can work and communicate with children, customers, and strangers with three targets of sustainable environmental, social, and economic. And then, this system not only helps to create the green lifestyle for inhabitant but also improves social communication, reducing CO2 emission with it sustainable working process. (paper)
[en] Main generation area II technically served several plants that Jatiluhur, Saguling and Cirata. The backbone of the generation (slack bus) held by two units supplied by IBT 500/150 kV with a power capacity of each IBT is 500 MVA. One sample is a sub-system supplier Cirata has 13 transmission line connecting the substation 8 (GI) and has a total of 17 150/20 kV transformer with a capacity of 930 MVA, while the existing generation units at 150 kV Cirata subsystem is PLTPb Patuha with a power of 55 MW. Given the large power capacity with the strategic and vital functions of the sub-systems of 150 kV Cirata requires maximum control and optimization so that the distribution of electricity in West Java can be properly maintained. System Reliability of the power system must be maintained in order to supply power from the generator to the consumer to keep going well. In this study, the disorder will be analyzed is the contingency (N-1), a discharge of one of the channels on the system. Then analyzes the current and voltage changes to prepare for system improvements. Repairs are done when the contingency is to release the load (load shedding). Reliability was measured after load shedding in this study is to measure the quality of the voltage on the load side. At the time of the contingency (N-1), a decline below the voltage value SPLN on some rails GI, including rail Cigereleng (124.8 kV to 136.8 kV), rail Lagadar (125.4 kV to 137.1 kV), rail Padalarang (126.1 kV to 137.5 kV), North Bandung rail (125.5kV be 137.3 kV) and rail Cibabat (125.6 kV to 137.2 kV). (paper)
[en] In member states of the European Union, portion of buildings in the total consumption of energy represents 40 %, and their share in CO2 emissions represents 35 %. Taking into account the dependence of the European Union on import of energy, this represents a large quantity of energy and CO2 in spite of the fact that effective solutions for the reduction of energy demand of buildings exist. The European Union adopted three main commitments for fulfilment of criteria by year 2020 in the 20-20-20 Directive. Based on this Directive Slovakia declares support for renovating the building stock. The goal of the paper was to prove that renovation of the building stock is environmentally and energy preferably as construction of new buildings. In the paper, the settlement unit with the suburban one were compared. Both territories are dealt with in Kosice city, in Slovakia. The settlement units include apartment dwelling houses, amenities, parking areas and green. Suburban part contains family houses. The decisive factor for the final assessment of the buildings was global indicator. Global indicator of the energy performance is primary energy. The new building must meet minimum requirements for energy performance and it must be classified to energy class A1 since 2016, and to energy class A0 since 2020. The paper analyses the effects of the use of different resources of heat considering the global indicator. Primary energy was calculated and based on comparable unit. The primary energy was accounted for on the built-up area, area corresponding to district city and suburb, number of inhabitants. The study shows that the lowest values of global indicator are achieved by using wood. The highest values of global indicator are achieved by using electricity or district heating as an energy source. The difference between the highest and lowest value is 87 %. Primary energy based on inhabitant is 98 % lower in settlement unit compared to the suburban one. (paper)
[en] Financial performance is an indicator of the company’s success in managing the finance functions. EVA method is very good to measure financial performance because it can describe the actual of company value. The object of this research is PT Kalbe Farma Tbk with financial data from the year 2012 up to 2014. This research uses the descriptive quantitative method. Based on computations, the EVA value of the company has fluctuated and positive. The positive value of EVA indicates that the company has the ability to create economic value added and rate of returns (operating profit exceeds the cost of capital). In other words, the company has created wealth for the shareholders. In this research, some recommendations are given to increase the EVA value. (paper)
[en] The next generation technologies based on perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are targeted to develop a true low cost, low tech, widely deployable, easily manufactured and reliable photovoltaics. After the extremely fast evolution in the last few years on the laboratory-scale, PSCs power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached over 24%. However, the widespread use of PSCs requires addressing the stability and industrial scale production issues. Carbon based monolithic perovskite solar cells (mPSCs) are one of the most promising candidates for the commercialization of the PSCs. mPSCs possess a unique architectural design and pave an easy way to produce large area and cost-effective fabrication of the PSCs. In this article, recent progress in the field of mPSCs, challenges and strategies for their improvement are briefly reviewed. Also, we focus on the predominant implementations of recent techniques in the fabrication of the mPSCs to improve their performance. This review is intended to serve as a future direction guide for the scientists who are looking forward to developing more reliable, cost-effective and large area PSCs.
[en] Understanding voluntary contribution in threshold public goods games has important practical implications. To improve contributions and provision frequency, free-rider problem and assurance problem should be solved. Insurance could play a significant, but largely unrecognized, role in facilitating a contribution to provision of public goods through providing insurance compensation against the losses. In this paper, we study how insurance compensation mechanism affects individuals’ decision-making under risk environments. We propose a multi-level threshold public goods game model where two kinds of public goods games (local and global) are considered. Particularly, the global public goods game involves a threshold, which is related to the safety of all the players. We theoretically probe the evolution of contributions of different levels and free-riders, and focus on the influence of the insurance on the global contribution. We explore, in both the cases, the scenarios that only global contributors could buy insurance and all the players could. It is found that with greater insurance compensation, especially under high collective risks, players are more likely to contribute globally when only global contributors are insured. On the other hand, global contribution could be promoted if a premium discount is given to global contributors when everyone buys insurance. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)
[en] Public utility buildings are formally, structurally and functionally complex entities. Frequently, the process of their design involves the retroactive reconsideration of energy engineering issues, once a building concept has already been completed. At that stage, minor formal corrections are made along with the design of the external layer of the building in order to satisfy applicable standards. Architecture students do the same when designing assigned public utility buildings. In order to demonstrate energy-related defects of building designs developed by students, the conduct of analyses was proposed. The completed designs of public utility buildings were examined with regard to energy efficiency of the solutions they feature through the application of the following programs: Ecotect, Vasari, and in case of simpler analyses ArchiCad program extensions were sufficient. (paper)