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[en] Taxes on energy products, electricity and CO2 are compared for a number of EU countries (Germany, Belgium, Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands) with special focus on the fiscal, economic and environmental impacts of the revision of the European Energy Directive for the Netherlands.
[nl]De belastingen op energieproducten, elektriciteit en CO2 worden vergeleken voor een aantal EU-lidstaten (Duitsland, Belgie, Denemarken, Verenigd Koninkrijk, Frankrijk, Luxemburg, Spanje, Zweden en Nederland) met speciale aandacht voor de fiscale-, economische- en milieugevolgen van de herziening van de Europese Energiebelastingrichtlijn voor Nederland.
[en] Due to the rapid growth in demand for certain materials, compounded by political risks associated with the geographical concentration of the supply of them, a shortage of these materials could be a potential bottleneck to the deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. In order to assess whether such shortages could jeopardise the objectives of the EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), an improved understanding of these risks is vital. In particular, this report examines the use of metals in the six low-carbon energy technologies of SET-Plan, namely: nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electricity grids. The study looks at the average annual demand for each metal for the deployment of the technologies in Europe between 2020 and 2030. The demand of each metal is compared to the respective global production volume in 2010. This ratio (expressed as a percentage) allows comparing the relative stress that the deployment of the six technologies in Europe is expected to create on the global supplies for these different metals. The study identifies 14 metals for which the deployment of the six technologies will require 1% or more (and in some cases, much more) of current world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. These 14 metals, in order of decreasing demand, are tellurium, indium, tin, hafnium, silver, dysprosium, gallium, neodymium, cadmium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium and selenium. The metals are examined further in terms of the risks of meeting the anticipated demand by analysing in detail the likelihood of rapid future global demand growth, limitations to expanding supply in the short to medium term, and the concentration of supply and political risks associated with key suppliers. The report pinpoints 5 of the 14 metals to be at high risk, namely: the rare earth metals neodymium and dysprosium, and the by-products (from the processing of other metals) indium, tellurium and gallium. The report explores a set of potential mitigation strategies, ranging from expanding European output, increasing recycling and reuse to reducing waste and finding substitutes for these metals in their main applications.
[en] Our energy system, which is one of the pillars of the Dutch society, will probably be subjected to drastic changes in the coming decades. It will become a difficult and painful process at times. Policy makers have the task of directing these changes with a clear view on opportunities and threats. This guide aims to offer Dutch policy makers some strategic insights and tools.
[nl]Onze energiehuishouding, 1 van de pijlers van de Nederlandse samenleving, zal de komende decennia drastische veranderingen ondergaan. Dat zal een bij tijd en wijle moeizaam en pijnlijk proces worden. Aan beleidsmakers de taak die veranderingen te regisseren met een helder oog voor kansen en bedreigingen. Deze gids beoogt Nederlandse beleidsmakers voor die taak enkele strategische inzichten en handvatten te bieden.
[en] On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, ECN and KEMA have studied the cost of renewable electricity production. This cost assessment for various categories is part of an advice on the subsidy base for the feed-in support scheme SDE+. The report contains a draft advice on the cost of projects in the Netherlands targeted for realisation in 2012. The options cover installations for green gas, biogas, renewable electricity and renewable heat. The draft advice has been written to facilitate the market consultation on the 2012 base rates. The open market consultation is to be held in August 2011.
[nl]Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI) heeft aan ECN en KEMA advies gevraagd over de hoogte van de basisbedragen in het kader van de SDE-regeling voor 2012. Dit rapport is een conceptadvies waarin de ELI-minister wordt geadviseerd over de hoogte van de basisbedragen voor door het Ministerie voorgeschreven categorieen. De Minister van ELI beslist over de openstelling van de SDE-regeling in 2012, de open te stellen categorieen en de basisbedragen voor nieuwe SDE-beschikkingen in 2012. De uitgangspunten van het advies, zoals opdracht en rekenmethodiek, staan genoemd in Hoofdstuk 2. In Hoofdstuk 3 wordt ingegaan op randvoorwaarden, zoals flankerend beleid en financiele uitgangspunten. De feed-in premiestructuur van de SDE-plus wordt toegelicht in Hoofdstuk 4. De prijsontwikkelingen voor elektriciteit, gas en biomassa worden toelicht in Hoofdstuk 5. Daarin wordt per categorie een overzicht gegeven van de technisch-economische parameters van de hernieuwbare-energieopties. Hoofdstuk 7 besluit met conclusies waarbij de vertaalslag naar basisbedragen gemaakt is.
[en] This report, dated 12/31/2017, gives an overview of the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. The report presents the key data for all nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel disposal facilities. At the reporting date of 12/31/2017 12:00 pm, seven nuclear power plant blocks were in operation. Nuclear power generation in 2017 totaled approximately 76.3 TWh (2016: 84.6 TWh). The share of nuclear energy in total gross electricity generation was 11.7% (2016: 13.0%). - For the nuclear power plants, the report summarizes the main operating results and references to the nuclear licences issued in the year under review. A brief description of the current status of the nuclear power plants that have been shut down or decommissioned and of the projects that have been discontinued is given. For the research reactors, the essential data on the type, the characteristic data (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and the intended use of the plant are presented. Furthermore, an overview of the licensing and operating history as well as the current operating status is given. For the nuclear fuel supply and nuclear fuel disposal plants, information is given on the intended purpose and output. Furthermore, the licensing history and the current operating and licensing status are presented. In the field of final disposal, the new legal structures, supervision and ongoing projects are described. The information is summarized at the end of the report in the form of a table.
[en] With its phase-out of nuclear power generation and the expansion of renewably sourced energy, the German energy turnaround ('Energiewende') has radically changed existing power supply structures, with wide geographical repercussions. One aspect of this is changes to the national power grid. Existing networks are to be upgraded and new long-distance north-south power-lines built. This creates resistance and conflict. Commissioned by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, and the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, the research project entitled Analysis of public discourse on the health impacts of high-voltage power lines - recommendations for action in radiation-protection discourse related to the extension of the power grid starts precisely at the point of conflict. It first investigates from a discourse theory perspective how power grid extensions and possible health-related consequences are communicatively constructed, and what argumentation patterns dominate the discussion. From this it derives recommendations for action, with a focus on health politics information and discourse. Behind the research project stands a socio-constructivist discourse theory that sees 'social reality' not as a given but as a socially evolved entity, and its meanings, therefore, not as stable but as subject to change. The central mechanism for the communication of an objectivized social world is language. The analyses undertaken here of power grid extension are based on a methodological mix of quantitative and qualitative elements that facilitates both the differentiation of central issues and detailed examination of individual aspects. Analysis focuses on the discussion of health issues not only in the relevant literature and on civic initiative websites, but also in the first 50 Google hits, in articles from the Sueddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) and Focus, and in talk shows. The resultant discourse analysis highlights the decisive role played by different social systems and their specific logics in any evaluative judgment. While industry and politics argue from the technological and economic need for new long-distance power lines, and urge this as the basis for their legitimacy, citizens' initiatives base their objections on emotional and aesthetic grounds, rejecting the change to their domestic and social environment as a looming threat, with all its negative connotations. Plans are regularly criticized for their impact on landscape, nature conservation, local economies, tourism, and health. Citizens' initiatives almost unanimously cite health risks and fears in connection with electro/magnetic fields, while the advocates of grid extension - the Federal Network Agency and transmission system operators - take a variety of approaches to this matter. The Federal Network Agency generally marginalizes health issues, and does so in specialist language, or in terms that demand in-depth study. On the other hand Amprion GmbH, as one of the operators, uses language that is readily accessible to laypeople, and its explanations leave less room for doubt than do those of the Federal Network Agency. Amprion argues that it can fulfill its task within the existing legislative framework. Nevertheless, health issues are not the company's main concern. TenneT TSO GmbH takes a more comprehensive approach, and its statements are more readily understandable, even though they also tend to use specialist language, citing scientific studies and generally softening risk. Sound scientific results are so far notably lacking, but improved communication of the known pros and cons of this technology is also urgently required. Another consistent factor is the problematic light in which previous grid extension plans and implementation processes are typically set, and the massive civic protests to which this has at various times given rise. Transmission system operators should have learnt by now to involve citizen groups more actively in their extension plans: the desire for consultation is stronger and more vocal than it used to be. The Bavarian approach was different. The health impact of the plans was not ignored, but constituted only one among several other lines of argument, such as violation of the landscape, loss of 'home' environment, or economic impairment (especially a drop in property values - above all in the value of one's own property). In these contexts, electrosmog, electro/magnetic fields, and space charge clouds (corona discharges) become undispelled fears, or risks that are viewed as factually given rather than as 'under certain circumstances possible'. Against such opposition, to insist on the need for overhead power lines is viewed as morally depraved. In sum, the underlying need for grid extension and the technology involved on the one hand, and issues of landscape, natural environment, health, and local economies, as well as participation in the decision-making process on the other, form central fields of conflict to be negotiated at cognitive, emotional and aesthetic levels of discourse. For all these issues, recommendations geared to specific target groups can be drawn up. In accordance with the different logical systems of the protagonists, health issues in particular are approached differently, which suggests the need for a more forceful widening of perspectives. The information and communication materials produced so far by industry, politics and the grid extension lobby tends to hinder rather than help understanding of the issues by lay audiences. This state of affairs must be remedied if a cognitive dimension is to be introduced into arguments whose basis is as yet predominantly emotional and aesthetic. In this sense, a toolbox developed for professionals of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection provides a range of instruments for dealing with identified problems and situations within the conflict fields analyzed in this study.
[en] The Summit on Improving the Economics of America's Nuclear Power Plants was convened May 19, 2016, by Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and co-sponsored by Idaho Senator Mike Crapo to stress the importance of existing nuclear reactors in meeting our nation's energy goals. The summit was also designed to identify and discuss policy options that can be pursued at federal and state levels to address economic challenges, as well as technical options that utilities can use to improve the economic competitiveness of operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) and avoid early plant retirements that are driven by temporary market conditions. The owners of NPPs face difficult economic decisions and are working to improve the performance of existing NPPs. However, it soon became clear that some of the actions taken by states and regional markets have had an impact on the economic viability of existing power plants, including carbon free NPPs. Summit speakers identified concepts and actions that could be taken at state and federal levels to improve the economics of the existing fleet within these regulated and restructured electricity markets. This report summarizes the speeches, concepts, and actions taken.
[en] This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.
[en] Structure and ownership: Prior to the reform, the electricity industry comprised of two main entities: a state-owned vertically integrated utility (JSC Lithuanian Power) and a state-owned nuclear power company. In 2010, in response to the third energy package of the EU, the electricity law was amended that resulted in the restructuring of the electricity industry . JSC Lithuanian Power was unbundled into several companies, including a transmission company (JSC Litgrid), a market operator (JSC Baltpool) and an independent power supplier (JSC Energy Supply). JSC Litgrid is the TSO. It is responsible for electricity planning, dispatch control and operational planning. JSC Baltpool is the market operator for wholesale electricity trade and it regulates the activities of the electricity exchange
[en] Structure and ownership: In 1969, the EGAT was established. It took the responsibility of providing electricity for the general population and became the largest state-owned electricity company. It controlled generation and transmission networks throughout the country and left the distribution of electricity to the Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) and the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). Since 1992, the Thai government has promoted a greater role for the private sector in the power generation business in the form of IPPs and SPPs. The role of the private sector in the electricity industry has been increasing since the initiation of the reform in the 1990s, mainly through their ownership of IPPs and SPPs. They have generally supplied electricity to EGAT on the basis of long term PPAs, typically backed by a government guarantee for a fixed return on investment, and supported by the provision of a number of tax and non-tax incentives. The entry of IPPs and SPPs altered the industry ownership from public to a mix of public and private owners. The share of private generating companies in electricity supply has continuously increased since their entry in the mid-1990s. Much of the increase is contributed by IPPs. In 2010, EGAT owned 44%, IPPs nearly 45% and SPPs 9% of the total electricity generation capacity. The current structure of the Thai electricity industry is a kind of monopsony. Under this structure, EGAT – a combined national generation and transmission utility – has the responsibility for electricity generation, power purchase, system operation, electricity transmission and bulk power supply to the distribution utilities. Furthermore, EGAT is playing a dominant role in the system development, planning and decision making processes in industrial policy. EGAT buys electricity from the IPPs, SPPs and neighbouring countries on the basis of PPAs and memorandums of understanding. SPPs can sell their electricity either to EGAT or to industrial customers located next to their plants. EGAT mainly sells electricity to the distribution utilities MEA and PEA. It also sells a small portion of electricity directly to some large customers through its transmission grid. The distribution and retail segments of the electricity industry are dominated by the MEA and PEA