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[en] The relocation of production processes abroad to low-wage countries has become increasingly relevant in times of globalization. Production costs can be significantly reduced by these relocations in order to give the company a competitive advantage. These relocations also cause higher emission outputs. In this thesis, the impacts are examined and then evaluated using various LCA tools. For this purpose, the country-specific energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the manufacturing phase of different reference products of the textile, paper, steel and automotive industry are determined. The low-wage countries of Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand are considered and compared with Germany. Especially China and India have the most CO2-intensive productions. The higher the percentage of electrical energy in the energy consumption of a manufacturing process, the lower are the emissions of Germany as a location for production. The production of the selected goods of the textile and paper industry in low-wage countries causes an average of about 25 % higher emissions than a comparable production in Germany. The products of the steel industry represent a special case. In this case, the emissions of the production in Germany are an average 10 % higher than in low-wage countries. However, China and India also show the highest emissions in this area. By producing a conventionally driven automobile and an electric vehicle in China, 65 % respectively 50 % more CO2 is generated than in a production in Germany. The analysis of the utilization phase of both automobiles shows that from an environmental point of view even today the large-scale use of electric mobility in countries like Germany is worthwhile. In countries such as China, which continue to produce a large part of their electricity from fossil sources, electromobility cannot significantly contribute to the reduction of emissions. This CO2 outsourcing has to be adapted to the effective measures of climate change.
[en] This study addresses attitudes toward nuclear power in an international comparative setting for two distinct scenarios: In a period without an issue-related exogenous shock and in the wake of nuclear accidents. As it cannot be taken for granted that citizens attach increased importance to issues of energy policy, the theoretical discussion deals with various implications of relative issue saliences with a focus on varying politicization levels. The empirical analyses for periods without external events reveals profound context-specific patterns when it comes to the association between predispositions and the evaluation of nuclear power. Theoretical mechanisms that are often generally assumed in the literature are mainly found in economically advanced countries. Moreover, using the Fukushima accident as an example for a scenario with an exogenous shock, the analysis highlights that attitudinal and behavioral reactions have to be conceived of as a complex interaction of elite cues, individual predispositions and long-term dynamics in issue salience. Based on three case studies, the investigation suggests that an increase in issue salience is only present in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima disaster, if at all. As context-specific politicization is relevant for a wide array of political issues - especially for less important topics - the study provides substantial and methodological implications beyond just the scope of the nuclear power issue.
[en] There is clear evidence of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused by the profligate use of energy by the industrialised countries. This is threatening global climate change. This, as also continuously depleting fuel resources, is likely to deprive the developing world from meeting its yet unfulfilled development aspirations. Energy is an essential input for development, but growth rate in energy use in any country depends on its current development level. The energy use in the developed countries is projected to grow slowly, while it is growing very fast in the developing countries. It has been the experience of all the countries that development results in a shift from the use of non-commercial energy sources to commercial energy sources, particularly electricity. Thus the developing countries are experiencing a surge in electricity demand, both due to the growth in energy use and shift rom non-commercial to commercial energy sources
[en] ASE objectives: • Digital Company through digitizing all company's processes; • Digital Product through digitizing the NPP as the primary object: creating digital twin of the whole NPP and its equipment, digitizing the engineering, construction and maintenance processes; • Digital Tools - through Creation of Multi-D industrial digital platform for complex technological objects management and control. Commercialization of the Services and the Products of the company with the help of the Platform; • Digital (Cyber) Security; • Digital Business - Reconsideration of the principles of communication with clients, suppliers and partners. Establishment of partnerships, creation of the new business models.
[en] Summary: • Overview of HRDC and IRRS was introduced. • The new qualification and training system was explained focusing on Basic level. • NRA has been developing the system and will continue to make efforts for its further improvement.
[en] The set of actions related to the objectives foreseen for the nuclear sector requires the strengthening of the national technological capacity in the various areas contemplated in the Brazilian Nuclear Program. In this context, the CNEN's Specialized Training Program, over the last years, has played a role of great importance and relevance for the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. The Specialized Training Program has become a fundamental tool for all nuclear institutions in Brazil, enabling projects of socio economic relevance, expanding and improving the technical scientific services offered by it and allowing to increase the potential of scientific and technological research execution. It is important that the amount of resources allocated to the Specialized Training Program, implemented by CNEN, be reviewed and expanded in the next five years (2018-2022), thus allowing that the objectives proposed for the Program in this new period can be fulfilled with efficiency and effectiveness, contemplating the demands of the Brazilian Nuclear Program.
[en] An important element of the milestones approach to introducing nuclear power is a mechanism to coordinate efforts among the many organizations and individuals who have roles to play in the process. This mechanism is referred to as a nuclear energy programme implementing organization (NEPIO). This publication describes a set of responsibilities, functions and activities that States can use as guidance for establishing a NEPIO and ensuring its effectiveness. This revision incorporates lessons learned from integrated nuclear infrastructure review missions and IAEA technical assistance activities. It attempts to clarify that there are many ways to structure a NEPIO and that each could result in the successful execution of all functions and activities. Several case studies are included. Consistent with the revision of IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1 (Rev. 1) Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power published in 2015, this publication recognizes that the NEPIO plays an important and evolving role in each of the three phases of nuclear power infrastructure development.
[en] Turkey is progressing in the development of its national infrastructure to support its nuclear power programme. Turkey is the first country to use a BOO approach for a nuclear power project. Turkey found advantages in conducting direct negotiations for the IGA and the BOO approach, to both initiate a project without having to go through a bidding process and to secure financing. The strong support from the Government of Turkey is evident. It established NEPID within MENR to coordinate the Government’s role in the nuclear infrastructure over the past three years. NEPID rapidly established effective mechanisms for this purpose. The IAEA’s Nuclear Power Human Resources model has been used to determine staffing numbers for: — NEPID; — The regulatory authority; — Project companies; — NPPs; — Academia. Due to bidding process failures that led to the country having a shortage of qualified personnel and time, the country would recommend having a NEPIO in place in Phase 1 so that, among other things, a State that is new to the process could ensure that all necessary legislation is in place.
[en] Methods: BAPETEN s site evaluator human resources in 2010 and challenges to face site license of NPP. KSA (knowledge, skill, and competency) needed to evaluate related documents regarding site evaluation approval and site license.