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[en] This report provides a preliminary assessment of the scope for cost-effective use by the Dutch government of each of four flexible mechanisms available to EU Member States to achieve their respective mandatory renewables target in year 2020. The flexible mechanisms, defined in the Renewables Directive 2009/28/CE, are: Statistical transfers between Member States; Joint projects between Member States; Joint projects between Member States and third countries; Joint support schemes. In theory, statistical transfers and joint support schemes are the flexible mechanisms with the most potential for cost-effective use. The Dutch government is advised to explore each of these options. In this report, it is argued that in practice well-designed joint support schemes are likely to turn out having most potential. To that effect, the report presents a concrete suggestion on the most promising short-term application. To successfully harness a substantial part of the joint support schemes potential warrants protracted efforts in the design phase: the devil is in the detail. Moreover, the joint projects between Member States mechanism may well turn out to provide some interesting opportunities. For collaboration between the Netherlands and a selection of (four) other Member States some technologies to focus upon are identified. Reasons are given why the flexible instrument joint projects between Member States and third countries is poised to have quite limited potential to cost-effectively contribute to the Dutch renewables target in year 2020.
[en] This is the second report of the annual Monitor of the Dutch Clean and Efficient programme. The monitoring focuses on the development of target variables, effects, results and progress of the process. Most of the data regarding the results and effects concern the period until the end of 2009. Some data are not yet available for 2009 and can therefore only be provided for the preceding years.
[nl]Het programma 'Schoon en Zuinig' kent ambitieuze doelen voor energie en klimaat. In september 2007 is het werkprogramma voor Schoon en Zuinig gepubliceerd. Daarin wordt het beleid uiteengezet waarmee deze doelen bereikt moeten worden. De minister heeft in een brief in oktober 2008 aan de Tweede Kamer toegezegd met een monitoringsysteem te komen waarmee de voortgang van het werkprogramma inzichtelijk kan worden gemaakt. Dit document betreft de tweede rapportage van een in principe jaarlijkse monitor.
[en] Inaugural speech at the occasion of the acceptance of the office for Energy Transition and Sustainable Development at the Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 21, 2006. The transition policy in the Netherlands towards a sustainable energy supply system succeeded in creating a basis in the Dutch society, although at the cost of making clear choices with regard to concrete projects, new policy tools and financial means. In order to accelerate those choices the Dutch government needs to take decisive measures
[nl]Oratie van 21 november 2006 aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, waar de auteur is benoemd tot bijzonder hoogleraar Energietransities en Duurzame Ontwikkeling aan de Faculteit der Aard- en Levenswetenschappen. Het transitiebeleid voor energie en milieu werd vijf jaar geleden gestart om Nederland op weg te helpen naar een duurzame energievoorziening via technologisch-institutionele innovaties die door overheid, bedrijfsleven en onderzoek gezamenlijk zouden worden opgepakt. Het begin dit jaar verschenen Transitieactieplan maakt echter nog weinig duidelijke keuzes wat betreft de prioriteiten voor transitie-experimenten en institutionele vernieuwing. Het scheppen van draagvlak bij een brede groep van maatschappelijke actoren is uitstekend gelukt, maar is wel op gespannen voet komen te staan met het tonen van daadkracht. De overlevingskansen van het transitiebeleid hangen nu af van die keuzes en om die keuzes te versnellen is meer regie van de overheid noodzakelijk. Het transitiebeleid heeft ook baat bij bezinning op de vraag of de overheid momenteel wel voldoende speelruimte heeft om doelstellingen van duurzaamheid te bereiken. Een krachtige regierol voor het op gang brengen van innovaties in nationale marktniches zou in meerdere opzichten wel eens onvoldoende kunnen zijn voor lange termijn resultaten. Transitiebeleid vereist op termijn ook herijking van het energie- en klimaatbeleid. Een van de vragen die dan naar voren komt heeft te maken met hoe op een strategische manier omgegaan moet worden met de grote onzekerheden rond de wereldenergiemarkt en in het mondiale klimaatbeleid. Een strategie zou gebaseerd kunnen worden op een integraal prijsbeleid dat deze onzekerheden op een creatieve manier aan elkaar weet te koppelen zodat de prijzen stabieler worden en investeerders meer zekerheden hebben, b.v. door het niveau van CO2 -heffingen te koppelen aan het niveau van marktprijzen van energie. Een tweede mogelijke strategie richt zich op een grotere rol van internationale technologieverdragen die een complementaire rol kunnen spelen voor het huidige klimaatbeleid en de internationale verankering van het transitiebeleid invulling kunnen geven
[en] The Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister Tun Dr Ismail Abdul Rahman suggested in the early 1970s that Malaysia should have a role in the development of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes. Accordingly, the Center for the Application of Nuclear Energy (CRANE) was established, with a focus on the development of a scientific and technical pool critical to a national nuclear power program. The Malaysian Cabinet next established the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Center (TIARC) under the Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment on 19 September 1972, at a site in Bangi, about 35 km south of Kuala Lampur. On 28 June 1982, the PUSPATI reactor, a 1-MW TRIGA MK-II research reactor, first reached criticality. On 10 August 1994, TIARC was officially renamed as the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). In addition to radioisotope production and neutron radiography conducted at the PUSPATI research reactor, MINT also supports numerous programs employing nuclear technology for medicine, agriculture and industry, and has been involved in both bilateral and multilateral technical cooperation to extend its capabilities. As an energy exporting country, Malaysia has felt little incentive to develop a nuclear energy program, and high level opposition within the government discouraged it further. A recent statement by Malaysia's Science, Technology and Innovation Minister supported this view, indicating that only a near-catastrophic jump in world oil prices might change the government's view. However, the rate at which Malaysia is using its natural gas and oil reserves is expected to force it to reassess the role of nuclear energy in the near future. In addition, the government does intend to construct a radioactive waste repository to dispose of naturally occurring radioactive materials (extracted during tin mining, in particular). Also, Malaysia's growing economy could encourage expansion in Malaysia's existing nuclear-applications programs supporting the medical, agricultural, industrial and environmental fields
[en] The programme Scientific Assessment and Policy Analysis is commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning, and the Environment (VROM) and has the following objectives: Collection and evaluation of relevant scientific information for policy development and decision-making in the field of climate change; Analysis of resolutions and decisions in the framework of international climate negotiations and their implications. The programme is concerned with analyses and assessments intended for a balanced evaluation of the state of the art knowledge for underpinning policy choices. These analyses and assessment activities are carried out within several months to about a year, depending on the complexity and the urgency of the policy issue. Assessment teams organised to handle the various topics consist of the best Dutch experts in their fields. Teams work on incidental and additionally financed activities, as opposed to the regular, structurally financed activities of the climate research consortium. The work should reflect the current state of science on the relevant topic. In this report an assessment on the following topics is presented: (1) Reconstructions of solar variability, especially with respect to those parameters which are relevant for climate change; (2) Reconstructions of proxies of solar variability, e.g. cosmogenic isotopes; (3) Reconstructions of global as well as regional climate, with respect to temperature, precipitation and circulation; (4) Physical understanding of the mechanisms which play a role in the solar terrestrial link. We focus on the Holocene with emphasis on the last centuries because of data availability, to avoid confusing climate responses to orbital changes with those due to solar activity and because of the relevance for human induced climate change as compared to the role of the variable sun in the 20th century
[en] In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services
[en] The purpose and aim of the project is to look at the risk of capacity shortage in the Swedish electricity supply system during excessively cold periods of weather. A risk that has increased in recent years. A growing number of analysts emphasize the importance of high spot prices actually leading to a reduction in demand. Through increased consumer sensitivity as regards pricing, the power system can be run safely with smaller generation reserves. In addition, market price fluctuation is estimated to become more stable and predictable. The purpose of the Demonstration Project is to demonstrate methods or business concepts that lead to the demand for electricity on a national level being reduced at times of high spot prices. The need for the measures to be profitable for the parties involved is an important starting point. A general problem associated with research and development projects is that the participants feel selected and special attention is paid them, hence they will make an extra effort to improve the results. We were aware of this fact when setting up the trials, which is why we introduced the trials as an offer from the electricity supplier to take part in a commercial assessment using a new price list. For this reason we concealed the marked research aim with Elforsk as a backer. Evaluating the results of questionnaires and detailed interviews does not give cause to suppose the results are in any way affected by such conditions. The conclusion of this project is that controlling load at the customer end is an economic alternative to the investment of new production resources
[en] The present study discusses the results of some follow-up analyses on the relationship between EU emissions trading and power prices, notably the implications of free allocations of CO2 emissions allowances for the price of electricity in Germany and the Netherlands. These analyses include: An update of the empirical and statistical analyses of the price trends and pass through rates of CO2 costs in the power sector of Germany and the Netherlands; An analysis by means of the model COMPETES of the potential effects of CO2 emissions trading on the wholesale market shares of the major power producers in the Netherlands; An analysis of two policy options to cope with certain adverse effects of passing through the opportunity costs of freely allocated CO2 emission allowances, i.e. less grandfathering to the major power producers - in favour of major electricity users - by either a more stringent allocation to the power generators or auctioning part of the allowances to these generators. A major finding of the present study is that dark/spark spreads of power production in Germany and the Netherlands have improved substantially in 2005, especially during the period August-December. Whereas valid CO2 pass through rates of 40 to 70 percent have been estimated for the first period of 2005 (January- July), estimates for the year 2005 as a whole - and particularly for the latter period August-December - seem to be less or not valid since other factors, such as market power or scarcity, seem also (or even more) responsible for the improvement of dark/spark spreads in the latter period of 2005 (while data are lacking to abstract for these other factors). Regarding the policy options to address adverse effects of CO2 cost pass through, the report concludes that a small degree of less grandfathering to the power producers (i.e. 10-20 percent of the allowances needed) will reduce their windfall profits accordingly, without a major, decisive impact on the operational and investment decisions of these producers. Finally, the report discusses policy options to compensate major power users for ETS-induced increases in electricity prices, notably by means of a lenient allocation of CO2 emission allowances to these users or by recycling revenues of CO2 emission allowances auctioned to power producers towards consumers of electricity. Both options, however, may be questioned as each of them has certain shortcomings and drawbacks. In practice, a mix of options may be chosen in order to compensate different groups of power users and, hence, to mitigate some shortcomings and drawbacks of these options
[en] This report was prepared as background material for renewal of the national Energy and Climate Strategy. The first chapter of the report highlights the premises set for Strategy preparation by the Government programme and statements by Parliament. The second chapter describes the international operating environment and recent changes therein, while chapters 3 and 4 include an outlook of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland and the EU. Chapters 5 to 8 of the report suggest procedures for managing Finland's greenhouse gas emission obligations with the methods currently in use, both during the Kyoto obligation period and after it. In addition, the impacts of emission obligations with different objectives are described for the time after the Kyoto obligation period with regards to Finland's emission balances. Chapters 9 and 10 review the development of the energy market and other key sectors in relation to the objectives set for energy and climate policy. Chapter 11 discusses Finland's goals for negotiations on limiting emissions after the year 2012, and chapter 12 reviews domestic measures in use for implementing the strategy. Numerous studies have been commissioned in preparing the strategy, evaluating the impacts of various factors on the energy market, energy costs for energy consumers, the public finances and aggregates of national economy - such as gross domestic product - households' consumption expenditure, employment and production in various producing sectors. Chapter 13 summarises the key results of these studies. The background report is produced in co-operation with several ministries (the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Environment) so that each has been responsible for the production and acquisition of material within its own branch of administration. The Ministry of Trade and Industry has co-ordinated the actual writing of the report. This report has not been discussed by the ministerial working group responsible for the preparation of the Strategy or by the Government. (orig.)
[en] Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order. Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies