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[en] Climate change is widely recognized as a major threat to humanity and much of the natural world. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in order to limit the average global temperature increase to 1.5°C, global energy production and use need to be fully decarbonized by around 2050, with rapid reductions in emissions starting immediately. Electricity production, like other energy sectors, faces the immense challenge of shifting almost entirely to low carbon energy sources in just 30 years, from a system dominated today by fossil fuels. The focus of the 2020 edition of this publication is on the significant role of nuclear energy in climate change mitigation scenarios and the challenges of realizing this role in a low carbon energy system. Many organizations are analysing the decarbonization of the energy system and many of their scenarios, including all four illustrative scenarios from the IPCC in its Special Report Global Warming of 1.5°C, call for a substantial increase in global nuclear power capacity. This edition elaborates on how this energy source could be enabled optimally to take its place in an integrated decarbonized energy system and outlines developments needed to realize a large scale capacity increase to rapidly decarbonize the global energy system in line with limiting global warming to 1.5°C. To that effect, the role of nuclear power includes maintaining existing low carbon capacity by extending the operational life of the current nuclear fleet as well as expanding low carbon capacity through the construction of new facilities.