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[en] The first document reports a study which aimed at providing some new elements regarding the sensitivity of future trajectories of greenhouse gas emissions to various mechanisms or hypotheses of prospective modes, by using the Imaclim-R hybrid model developed at the CIRED. This document reports a complete diagnosis of the state-of-the-art of emission scenarios and of models used to produce them, the further development of the Imaclim-R model, and some sensitivity tests performed with this model. A second document proposes a synthetic presentation of the GICC Programme in 2004 which addressed the conciliation between environmental constraints and national development policies in developing countries, and which aimed as assessing the implementation potential of strategies related to climate policies and development. It notably reports some case studies on the use of biomass energy in Brazil, and the use of coal in India.
Electricity demand management - to promote thrifty technologies and behaviours in the field of lighting: Households and their relationship with lighting - To shed light on an invisible consumption; Electric cultures and household rationalities - The MDE campaign of the Lot; When comfort and energy saving are competing - The difficult action in the field of lighting. Awareness campaigns - context, mechanisms, objectives and limitations; Compact fluorescent lamps in distribution channels - Analysis of the dealer-seller-customer, About energetic culture by professionals of the environment or the myth of the poorly shod shoemaker?
[en] A first article presents a study which aimed at characterising actual social practices of household lighting in order to build up typical profiles and behaviour categories, and then to define a hierarchy of priorities of actions to be implemented to favour a change. A second article reports the study of the household use of lighting, heating and air conditioning by inhabitants of the Lot district, an analysis of the representations of the surveyed people in terms of energy saving, motivation for behavioural change, and knowledge of Lot electricity demand management policies. A third article reports the study of household practices with respect to lighting and an analysis of conditions for their change. A fourth article discusses the objectives of different awareness campaigns on energy saving in relationship with domestic everyday practices, and their limitations. A fifth article reports a study of the diffusion of compact fluorescent lamps in housing by examining the roles and types of dealers, sellers and customers, the presence of these products in different types of shops, information about them. The last article reports a research on social mechanisms related to electricity demand management through an exploration of energy consumption modes and practices of a specific population: actors particularly aware of environmental issues because of their professional situation or their associative or political commitment.
[en] While indicating some key figures and proposing data graphs, this publication describes which energy we consume and what we do with it, and outlines that our energy consumption is increasing every day, that this increase is mainly due to transports, and that only industry has made savings. It describes how we can manage our energy-related expenses (at home, by changing transport habits, in the industry). The next part addresses the evolution towards a sustainable development: struggle against greenhouse effect, a difficult world context, French commitment for the Kyoto protocol. The situation of fossil energies (oil, gas, coal) is then addressed (consumptions in different sectors, shares in the energy consumption in the world and in France). The next part addresses renewable energies (hydraulic, biomass, solar and wind energies) by commenting their share in energy production, how they are adapted to different needs, their costs, their development in overseas territories, and their perspective of development. Nuclear energy is the next topic: its stakes, it high share in electric power production in France, the associated risks which must be managed and monitored, the waste issue. Questions addressed by the different events of the debate on energy are finally indicated.
[en] This study reports the extension of the PRIMES technical-economic model to agriculture in order to obtain carbon marginal cost curves which would integrate possible changes in agricultural practices in relationship with incentives to take emissions into account. Thus, it presents the AGRIPOL model which aims at assessing, for the agriculture sector, the effect of carbon pricing on soil use and of greenhouse gas emissions. This model describes the agriculture sector as an economic agent which aims at maximising its revenue. Results obtained for 15 countries of the European Union are presented. The authors highlight methodological difficulties and obstacles met from the base data point of view. They formulate propositions to overcome the tool present limitations, and to improve result reliability.
[en] After a contribution of the minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development, a first round table discussed the role of renewable energies in heat production. Then, after a contribution of the minister of Industry, a second round table discussed the role of biofuels. A contribution focuses on innovative sectors and on niche sectors. The third round table discussed the roles of wind and hydraulic energies. The first day is completed by contributions of other ministers (Research and new technologies). Three round tables were held on the second day on the question of risk management, on the solutions regarding wastes, and on the role of nuclear energy in the future, each round table being followed by a debate.
National debate on energies: Report by the Committee of 'Wise Persons', Pierre Castillon, Mac Lesggy, Edgar Morin, given to Nicole Fontaine, delegated minister for Industry; Report by Jean Besson, parliamentary commissioner, to Nicole Fontaine, delegated minister for Industry 'An energy strategy for France'
[en] A first report aimed at giving an opinion of the method adopted for the debate on energy, at guaranteeing its equilibrium and pluralism, at contributing to the media coverage of the national debate, and at participating to the synthesis of the debate, at drawing lessons from it, and at making the main orientations emerge. Thus, the authors give their opinion on the debate process and content, discuss the debate contexts and conditions, address the society problematic, the civilisation problematic, and the related societal and civilisation policy. The second report first describes the French energy landscape as it resulted from the national debate (old and renewed challenges, the market, emergence of new actors, a demand management which gave fragile and contrasted results), and proposes an overview of elements for an energy policy (objectives, demand management, energy offer).
[en] After a recall of works performed during the first two years, this report discusses the evolution of fuel and electric power consumptions on the long term: presentation of the decomposition method, application to fuel consumption, indexes of evolution of fuel consumption, application to electric power residential consumption. The next part addresses the analysis of the rebound effect: definition, measurement and theoretical model, empirical and updated assessments. Quarterly data are then presented and discussed: sources and properties of data series, characteristics of data series, statistical properties, price asymmetric decomposition, non-linearity tests, tests of asymmetric response to price demand, co-integration with error correction, assessment of the consumption function on the 1971-2003 period.
[en] This publication first proposes an overview of the situation of heat networks in social housing. It proposes a synthesis of a locally performed survey. It discusses the competitiveness of urban heating in terms of taxing, of comparison between fuel and heat, of calculation of recoverable costs, of lack of commitment of commissioner, and of hot water production. It comments the situation of the heat distribution public service: relationships between actors, service continuity, price fairness, transparency and simplicity, issue of individualisation, and other aspects. The last part addresses the issue of environmental quality in terms of energy management, energy efficiency, and renewable energy sources.
[en] In the energy sector, as well as in other sectors, innovation trends to slide from hardware-using firms towards hardware-providing firms, with a development of new forms of research partnerships between these both types of firms. This study reports an examination of this phenomenon in the case of the main energy industries: the hydrocarbon industry and the electric power industry. The objective has been to identify trends of internationalisation of technological activities in this sector, to identify influencing factors regarding these trends, and to identify consequences in terms of innovation dynamics. Hypotheses of this study are based on previous works related to the design of innovation processes within organisations. Then, the authors apply these hypotheses to the characterisation of technological and industrial dynamics of oil and electric power industries during a period of time extending from 1985 to 1998. This analysis is completed by a quantitative analysis of patent applied or bought by the first fifteen world companies belonging to the concerned sectors.
Commission for the steering of the public debate about the Georges Besse II project of renewal of the Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant: press information file; Minutes of public meetings; Assessment by the chairman of the national Commission for public debate; From Eurodif to Georges Besse II: project of renewal of the Tricastin enrichment plant; Georges Besse II project - Commissioner file; Journal of information on the public debate about the Georges Besse II project
[en] A first document recalls the definition of a public debate, presents the national commission for public debate (CNDP) and the commission for the steering of the public debate (CPDP), and the debate agenda, proposes an interview of the CPDP chairman, presents Areva (commissioner of the Georges Besse II project which is the matter of the public debate), proposes an interview of the project manager, presents the technical scope of the project (centrifugation), and indicates how to be informed on and to participate to the public debate. Then, the minutes of different public meetings held in 2004 are reported. An assessment of this public debate by the CNDP chairman is then proposed. A publication by Areva presents the technical and technological background and scope of the project (brief description of the centrifugation process, impacts on the environment and on jobs, impact and duration of the plant construction). Another Areva publication presents uranium enrichment (nuclear fuel cycle, isotopic enrichment, enrichment technologies, enrichment market), briefly describes the alternatives and the choice of the Georges Besse II project, presents the new plant and its environment (the installation itself, project cost and financing, consequences in terms of jobs and for the environment, safety aspects, works impacts). It indicates the major steps of the project, and proposes an overview of the public debate process (organisation, assessment, project continuation)