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[en] There is clear evidence of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused by the profligate use of energy by the industrialised countries. This is threatening global climate change. This, as also continuously depleting fuel resources, is likely to deprive the developing world from meeting its yet unfulfilled development aspirations. Energy is an essential input for development, but growth rate in energy use in any country depends on its current development level. The energy use in the developed countries is projected to grow slowly, while it is growing very fast in the developing countries. It has been the experience of all the countries that development results in a shift from the use of non-commercial energy sources to commercial energy sources, particularly electricity. Thus the developing countries are experiencing a surge in electricity demand, both due to the growth in energy use and shift rom non-commercial to commercial energy sources
[en] The energy efficiency in buildings is generally the first sector to be targeted in order to achieve a massive reduction in energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases. This sector is a priority in French energy and climate policy. An important program to reduce energy consumption in buildings is currently being implemented within the framework of the 'Grenelle Environment' (Environmental Round Table). In a rapidly expanding sector, efforts at a national level have enabled France to offer a high quality and a dynamic range of products and services. To showcase, this brochure presents a summary of French expertise in the field of energy efficiency in buildings: offers from private companies, the public policy framework, measures to support Research and Development, innovation and training etc. This brochure is part of a published collection of themed brochures aimed at presenting French products and services in the Eco-Technologies sector, in particular the renewable energy. (author)
[en] A first document proposes an overview of the situation of renewable energies in Gironde (recall of European, national and regional objectives, current situation). It analyses sources per sector (solar thermal and photovoltaic, wood-energy, geothermal, hydroelectricity, wind, biogas and methanization, and innovative technologies such as heat recovery on wastewater networks, sea energy and urban wind turbines). It proposes lessons learned form source studies per sector, and a perspective for Gironde by 2020. Appendices define and locate patrimonial and environmental constraints, indicate assessments and objectives of ready to be mobilised potentials per renewable energies, locate the geothermal potential of the Aquitaine Basin, existing dams and potential hydrological sites. A second document gives overviews of the European and territorial energy context (by notably indicating the shares of energy consumption per source), of actors and of their roles, of economic, social and environmental challenges for public actions. The third document presents some returns on experience: design of an energy planning on the territory of a community of communes, production of wood energy fuel for inhabitants of a commune, design of a wood-energy-based heat network, mobilisation of the local wood resource for an urban heat network in Libourne, development of renewable energies on the patrimony of a commune, and design of a shared territorial methanization unit in Pessac.
[en] As heat networks are necessary in the struggle against greenhouse effect and for the French energy independence, this study reports an assessment of costs for the community and for consumers, while taking decision-makers constraints and objectives into account. The author proposes an overview of the situation of heat networks in France and in Europe: definition of a heat network, customers, heat production, existence of networks of different sizes, variety of heat prices and billing modes, benefits and drawbacks of heat networks. He presents the general framework of the economic analysis: fossil energy price, carbon cost, and discount rate. He analyses and discusses the components of the price cost of a heat network created ex-nihilo. He reports the comparison of the urban heating cost with an individual or collective heating. He discusses how to choose among options in a real situation. He sheds a light on the possible contribution of heat networks to the struggle against the greenhouse effect. Then, he addresses the use of biomass, and more particularly wood, as a new heat source, with a comparison of the different energy uses of biomass. He describes the relationships between heat networks and their customers, competitors, concessioning communes, and the public. He discusses how to make these networks more competitive through public intervention, taxing and financing. Some recommendations are finally made to develop and to create heat networks which reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
[en] This parliamentary report first focuses on energy as a core element of Russian economic power. It outlines that it is the main pillar of the Russian economy because of the existence of huge resources (coal, hydrocarbons, uranium), of a high level of energy production and consumption, of an important political dimension (the energy sector is mainly controlled by public authorities again), and of its exporting power. The strategic role of the Gazprom company is then outlined: it's an instrument of control of energy resources as well as a vector of influence of Russia on foreign countries. The second part of the report addresses challenges faced by this sector as such a windfall economy presents some weaknesses, as the Russian energy mix needs to be diversified (with nuclear and renewable energies), and as energy efficiency is to be significantly improved. The second part of the report discusses opportunities of collaboration and investment for France. It notices that the French presence in Russia is being improved through the development of bilateral economic relationships, the strategy of the different French energy companies (Total, GDF-Suez, EDF, Alstom), and the development of a collaborations in the energy efficiency sector. A focus is then proposed on the Murmansk region with a presentation of the various stakes associated with this northern region, a presentation of the Shtokman project (a huge gas investment), and of other development perspectives for this region (a rather high human concentration, good economic growth perspectives, a French presence to be strengthened).
[en] As policies of struggle against pollutant emissions generally use two types of instruments (economic and regulatory instruments), this study aims at presenting these both instruments and their use within the frame of environmental policies, notably in the struggle against climate change. The authors first outline that a standard-based regulation is necessary but rarely sufficient. They show that economic instruments are used to internalise the environmental pollution. They indicate that the meaning of taxes is an assignment of a value to natural resources, that exchangeable permits can be used to create scarcity, and that a permit market is actually the instrument for the struggle against climate change (as shown by the passage from the international institutional framework like the Kyoto protocol, to the European practice with the European Union Trading Scheme or ETS). They show that project mechanisms result in an extension of permit markets, and discuss how to relate different price systems.
[en] Written and published few days before the opening of the Copenhagen Conference, this article discusses the main characteristics which negotiations on climate should have in order to obtain a good agreement: to define universal, ambitious, and credible commitments. After having identified the new requirements, the authors propose an assessment of the Kyoto Protocol by outlining that most of industrialised countries will not reach Kyoto objectives, and by discussing the application of Kyoto flexibility mechanisms. Then, they discuss the scientific context by recalling the content of the fourth IPCC report. They discuss the commitment of industrial countries for the second period of the Kyoto protocol in the case of the European Union, and in terms of differences between developed countries, and of implication of emerging countries. The issue of the definition of a legal framework is then addressed by outlining the complexity of the negotiation, and by discussing the fact that the USA do not want to remain within the Kyoto protocol framework. Then, the importance of the negotiation on climate is highlighted and commented, and the implementation of actions of struggle against climate change is also addressed (adaptation actions, mitigation actions in developing countries, struggle against deforestation, technology transfers). The financing issue is then addressed in terms of economic assets of the struggle against climate change, and of North-South financial transfers. The authors finally discuss the possible content of the Copenhagen agreement
[en] The purpose of the research project is to undertake an analysis of Kyoto project mechanisms (CDM and JI) from the perspective and with the tools of industrial economics. These mechanisms allow firms to invest in carbon emissions mitigation projects in developing countries, and to obtain as a counterpart carbon credits that can be sold in the carbon markets of industrialized countries. Besides facilitating the reduction of carbon emissions at a lower marginal cost than in industrialized countries, the implementation of CDM and JI projects frequently implies the international transfer of clean technology from developed to developing countries. Analyzing these mechanisms with the tools of industrial economics makes it possible to highlight the underlying economic motives and mechanisms, with a particular emphasis on their effect on international technology diffusion. For this purpose, we use economic modelling and empirical analysis in the research project. Reflecting these different approaches, this final report is structured in three parts. The first part presents an economic model developed to analyse the effect of Project mechanisms on technology diffusion in developing countries. The second and third parts present descriptive statistics and econometric analyses of a sample of 644 CDM projects, focusing respectively on the measure and drivers of international technology transfers, and on attractiveness of four major developing countries (Brazil, China, India and Mexico) for technology transfers. The studies presented in Parts 2 and 3 have been accepted for publication in Energy Policy. The theoretical work presented in Part 1 has been submitted for publication in the International Economic Review. The first Part presents a theoretical study on the dynamics of the diffusion of GHG mitigation technologies in developing countries. We develop a model to evaluate the ability of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to yield the optimal diffusion path in a context where the first adoption of a technology into a developing country entails lower adoption costs for local firms that will adopt subsequently. We show that this pattern create two types of inefficiencies. The first is the standard positive externality problem leading to the under-provision of technology adoption. The second one is a coordination problem. Neither firm wants to adopt first, which delays the introduction of the technology in their country. We show that the CDM does not solve any of these two problems. We consider possible design improvements. Giving a premium to the first adopter solves the externality problem but not the coordination problem. By contrast, bundling the similar projects into a single CDM project at the sector level can yield the first best optimum. The second Part provides an assessment of the technology transfers that take place through the CDM using our unique data set of 644 registered projects. It provides a detailed description of the transfers (frequency, type, by sector, by host country, etc.). It also includes an econometric analysis of their drivers. We show that more than 40% of CDM projects entail a technology transfer, and that transfer likeliness increases with the size of the projects. The transfer probability is 50% higher in projects implemented in a subsidiary of Annex 1 companies while the presence of an official credit buyer has a lower - albeit positive - impact. The analysis also yields interesting results on how technological capabilities of the host country influence technology diffusion in the CDM. The third Part presents the results of another econometric work using the same database and a and similar econometric models to explain inter-country differences. We focus on 4 countries gathering about 75% of the CDM projects: Brazil, China, India, and Mexico. 68% of Mexican projects include an international transfer of technology. The rates are respectively 12%, 40% and 59% for India, Brazil and China. Our results show that transfers to Mexico and Brazil are mainly related to the strong involvement of foreign partners and good technological capabilities. Besides a relative advantage with respect to these factors, the higher rate of international transfers in Mexico seems to be due to a sector-composition effect. The involvement of foreign partners is less frequent in India and China, where investment opportunities generated by fast growing economies seem to play a more important role in facilitating international technology transfers through the CDM. International transfers are also related to strong technology capabilities in China. By contrast, the lower rate of international transfer (12%) in India may be due to a better capability to diffuse domestic technologies. (authors)
[en] This research paper provides an overview of the European carbon trading system more than three years after its creation. The first part of the paper places the Emissions Trading Scheme in the international context of the Kyoto Protocol and presents this system which is a response from Europe to its commitments against global warming. The second part is a summary of the literature available to study the formation of a price per ton of CO2 on European markets and the influence of various factors on this price. Finally, the paper focused, through case studies and interviews with actors at the heart of this system, to observe the action of private groups on these markets and to identify the room for maneuver to improve their efficiency. (author)
[fr]Ce memoire de recherche permet d'acquerir une vision d'ensemble du systeme europeen d'echange de quotas carbone, plus de trois ans apres sa creation. La premiere partie du memoire replace l'Emissions Trading Scheme dans le contexte international issu du protocole de Kyoto et presente ce systeme qui constitue une reponse de l'Europe a ses engagements contre le rechauffement climatique. La deuxieme partie constitue une synthese de la litterature disponible afin d'etudier la formation d'un prix de la tonne de CO2 sur les marches europeens et l'influence de differents facteurs sur ce prix. Enfin, nous nous sommes attaches, par des etudes de cas et des entretiens avec des acteurs au coeur de ce systeme, a observer l'action des groupes prives sur ces marches et a identifier les marges de manoeuvre pour en ameliorer l'efficience. (auteurs)
[en] This note aims at proposing an overview of technical possibilities and of development stakes for cold production and distribution through networks. It proposes an overview of technologies of cold networks and of heat networks with cold production, of technologies of cold production (compression-based machines, absorption-based machines). It proposes an economic and environmental comparison in terms of cold production costs, of primary energy, of CO2 emissions. It indicates some examples of cold networks and of cold production on heat networks (and more particularly those present in Montpellier), an example of cold production from heat (in Corte).