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[en] A map of Colombia, a country located in the northern part of South America, is shown. With an extension of almost 1.4 million square kilometers, most of its 19.0 million inhabitants; live in the central and western regions while almost half of the territory (the eastern plains) is still largely unsettled and undeveloped. Although the Colombian economy has been dependent mainly on agricultural products and the coffee production has been the primary, source of foreign currency, it is clear now that an industrialization process is beginning. The effects of each a process can already be measured in terms of improved standard of living and in a more steady monetary situation.
[en] Pakistan is one of the very few developing countries which have nuclear power plants actually under construction. The country has a unique geographical position in the sense that it consists of two provinces, namely East Pakistan and West Pakistan, which are physically separated by over 1000 miles of Indian territory. Because of the physical separation of the two provinces, the power systems and the development programmes in the two provinces are considered separately.
[en] In the framework of the CRP: “Examining the Techno-Economics of Nuclear Hydrogen Production and Benchmark Analysis of the IAEA HEEP Software”, an evaluation of the HEEP capabilities was carried out through the analysis of eight Case Studies using common technical and financial input data provided to all participants of the Project. The first five cases correspond to Generic Case Studies provided by the IAEA while the remaining three cases are National State Case Studies given by participants from Japan, China and Germany, respectively, based on their own technical and financial input data. In addition to nominal calculations carried out with the default values of financial parameters included in HEEP, a sensitivity analysis was performed on the five Generic Case Studies by changing the following four financial parameters: (1) discount rate; (2) inflation rate; (3) borrowing interest; and (4) tax rate. The benchmark exercise has proved that the IAEA HEEP software is a suitable and friendly analysis tool for obtaining valuable information about techno-economics of nuclear hydrogen production, since HEEP computational models appear to well-predict the effect of different technical and economic issues that affect the hydrogen cost such as the economy scale, the process used to produce hydrogen and the economic parameters of different countries. The sensitivity analysis also showed a strong influence of financial parameters on the hydrogen production cost and this influence appears to be more significant when the cost of the nuclear power plant component is an important fraction of the total cost of the energy complex. Finally, some recommendations are given for enhancing the current HEEP capabilities and user friendliness. (author)
[en] Semipalatinsk of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a major nuclear test site of the former Soviet Union, and 456 times of nuclear tests were conducted during 40 years until 1989. It is said that hundreds of thousands of local residents were damaged by radiation. Hiroshima University has continuously conducted questionnaire surveys (interviews) since 2002. Direct hearings were conducted with victims, and interviews with local residents of the generations who did not directly experience nuclear tests, especially children with diseases and disabilities and their guardians, began in 2009. Using these results, the authors examined the awareness of residents against nuclear tests. As a result of the analysis of testimony against radiation exposure so far, it has been found that the main concern of the Semipalatinsk residents is health damage after the nuclear tests. So the focus was placed on what the residents felt about the relation between suffered diseases/damage and nuclear tests. In response to the question of whether the current diseases have been caused by nuclear tests (radioactivity), 62% of the respondents said that they think so, and the closer the residence was from the nuclear test site, the higher the rate of answering 'I think so' was. For the question whether children's disability (or diseases) is thought due to the nuclear test, 6 families in 9 families said that they think so. For these responses, there was a tendency that emphasis was placed on the opinions from doctors that these troubles were not caused by nuclear tests. (A.O.)
[en] To improve the quality of electric power demand prediction, we have been applied the chaos into the prediction model. The chaos is generated by semiconductor injection laser system with external optical feedback. In the modeled single-mode, distributed-feedback semiconductor laser system, the chaos oscillation occurs at the feedback coefficient more than 3.0 x 109 s-1 and the injection coefficient more than 3.0 x 109 s-1. The rate of orbit magnification of the chaos can be controlled by changing the feedback coefficient. The rate of orbit magnification reaches 0.8 at the feedback coefficient of 3.0 x 1011 s-1. In this condition, however, the chaos having the controlled difference of the rate of orbit magnification more than 0.5 cannot be obtained. (author)
[en] - The energy transition policy of the Moon Jae-In administration forecasts a gradual decline in nuclear power generation, however, nuclear energy is still expected to be a useful energy source in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the new climate regime. - As a result, R&D in the nuclear energy sector is expects a major growth in the field of strengthening nuclear safety in accordance with the energy transition policy, the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, the management of spent fuel and the awareness of the society towards safety, and we proposed a policy need for a new research infrastructure for nuclear R&D in the near future. - When the 2nd KAERI is installed, it reflects the specificity of a nuclear facility, and it has derived legal site requirements and considerations. - Since the government-funded research institute is obliged to comply with the regulation of National Research Council of Science and Technology when it intends to install and operate a branch office, the details of the regulation are reviewed and develop countermeasures. - And reviewed and derived legal and administrative considerations in securing the site
[en] The first nuclear power project in Taiwan will be a 500 MW class unit scheduled for completion by the end of 1975. (Refer to Taipower's power development programme. By that time, the system will already be large enough to accommodate a nuclear installation). As Taipower is a public utility, and utilities are always very conservative, the reactor selected by Taipower is of the light water type.
[en] The subject of my lecture is the use of nuclear energy for sea water desalination. During this study course this is the only lecture we will have on desalination and therefore we have many points to cover. I propose to cover these points in the following order: (1) Determining the feasibility, of nuclear desalination (2) Nuclear desalination and plant cycles (3) Additional nuclear desalination plant considerations and recent desalination developments. In several cases, whore there is only time for a summary, there is a more complete treatment in the Appendices.
[en] In dual purpose nuclear power stations producing both electricity and desalted water/ high pressure steam at about 250°C enters a back pressure turbine and is discharged at about 125°C into the first, stage, of a multistage sea water evaporator. Since these two temperatures are essentially fixed for technical and economic reasons, the ratio of electricity and water produced is also fixed. At least it is under optimum design conditions. This situation is acceptable as long as both products can be fully marketed; however, in some applications more water is needed than electricity or vice versa. When the power requirement dominates, water production can be reduced without much of an economic penalty by using an extraction turbine rather than a back pressure turbine. On the other hand, when the water requirement dominates, reduction in electricity output by bypassing steam or by some other device appreciably increases the cost of desalted water. Studies indicate that water costs might be increased by one-third in a ''water only'' plant. To avoid this dilemma, it was suggested several years ago that when there is no external, market for the electricity produced in a dual purpose plant it might be advantageous to use the electricity onsite for the production of industrial chemicals and metals. Thus the idea of the Agro-Industrial Complex was born.
[en] Under the Paris Agreement, OECD countries agreed to aim for a reduction of their greenhouse gas emissions sufficient to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 deg. C above pre industrial levels. This commitment requires a massive effort to de-carbonise energy and electricity generation, a radical restructuring of the electric power sector and the rapid deployment of large amounts of low-carbon generation technologies, in particular nuclear energy and renewable energies such as wind and solar PV. This study assesses the costs of alternative low-carbon electricity systems capable of achieving strict carbon emission reductions consistent with the aims of the Paris Agreement. It analyses several deep decarbonization scenarios to reach the same stringent carbon emission target but characterised by different shares of variable renewable technologies, hydroelectric power and nuclear energy.