Results 1 - 10 of 1916
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[en] This study uses the total-factor energy productivity change index (TFEPCH) to investigate the changes in energy productivity of construction industry for 30 provincial regions in China from 2006 to 2015, adopting the improved Luenberger productivity index combined with the directional distance function. In addition to traditional economic output indicator, this study introduces building floor space under construction as a physical output indicator for energy productivity evaluation. The TFEPCH was decomposed into energy technical efficiency change and energy technical progress shift. Results indicate that, first, energy productivity of China’s construction industry decreased by 7.1% annually during 2006–2015. Energy technical regress, rather than energy technical efficiency, contributed most to the overall decline in energy productivity of China’s construction industry. Second, energy productivity in the central region of China decreased dramatically, by a cumulative sum of approximately 77.1%, since 2006, while energy productivity in the eastern and western regions decreased by over 54.3 and 65.3%, respectively. Only two of the 30 provinces considered—Hebei and Shandong—improved their energy productivity during 2006–2015. The findings presented here provide a basis for decision-making and references for administrative departments to set differentiated energy efficiency goals and develop relevant measures. Additionally, the findings are highly significant for energy and resource allocation of Chinese construction industry in different regions.
PurposeRenewable energies are promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the depletion of fossil fuels. However, plants for renewable electricity production incorporate specifically higher amounts of materials being rated as potentially scarce. Therefore, it is in question which (mineral) resources contribute to the overall resource consumption and which of the manifold impact assessment methods can be recommended to cover an accurate and complete investigation of resource use for renewable energy technologies.
MethodsLife cycle assessment is conducted for different renewable electricity production technologies (wind, photovoltaics, and biomass) under German conditions and compared to fossil electricity generation from a coal-fired power plant. Focus is given on mineral resource depletion for these technologies. As no consensus has been reached so far as to which impact assessment method is recommended, different established as well as recently developed impact assessment methods (CML, ReCiPe, Swiss Ecoscarcity, and economic scarcity potential (ESP)) are compared. The contribution of mineral resources to the overall resource depletion as well as potential scarcity are identified.
Results and discussionOverall resource depletion of electricity generation technologies tends to be dominated by fossil fuel depletion; therefore, most renewable technologies reduce the overall resource depletion compared to a coal-fired power plant. But, in comparison to fossil electricity generation from coal, mineral resource depletion is increased by wind and solar power. The investigated methods rate different materials as major contributors to mineral resource depletion, such as gallium used in photovoltaic plants (Swiss Ecoscarcity), gold and copper incorporated in electrical circuits and in cables (CML and ReCiPe), and nickel (Swiss Ecoscarcity and ReCiPe) and chromium (ESP) for stainless steel production. However, some methods lack characterization factors for potentially important materials.
ConclusionsIf mineral resource use is investigated for technologies using a wider spectrum of potentially scarce minerals, practitioners need to choose the impact assessment method carefully according to their scope and check if all important materials are covered. Further research is needed for an overall assessment of different resource compartments.
[en] As a result, the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) prepared a plan for improving the safety of nuclear facilities against a major earthquake, and implemented measures to improve the earthquake response system, to strengthen the seismic capacity of NPPs and to evaluate the seismic capacity. Based on the seismology survey results, KINS plans to reevaluate the seismic design criteria of NPPs. While these activities have been carried out based on individual administrative orders of the regulatory authority in a relatively short period of time since 2011, the Nuclear Safety Act was revised to provide an additional requirement to submit the Accident Management Plan (AMP) for the Operating License. Accordingly, treatment of the above improvements related to the accident management (AM) in a comprehensive and systematic manner has become necessary when the amended laws and regulations are implemented. Therefore, in this study, we examine the status of the Post-Fukushima actions following the administrative orders of the regulatory body and self-imposed by the licensee by searching mainly the Nuclear Safety Yearbooks. Among those actions, we listed up the items that need continuous follow-up. Then we propose a desirable approach to include them in the AMP. It is very challenging to submit an AMP covering a wide range of design basis accidents, multiple accidents, external hazards, and severe accidents for all operating and new reactors after three years of the preparation period. Similarly, the work of the regulatory body that will review the plan submitted at once should be enormous. Installation of the equipment or evaluation results from the Fukushima actions should be appropriately reflected in the AMP. Among those follow-up items, we listed up those which are related to the AM and need follow-up under the AMP framework. While it is expected that preparation and review of the AMPs require much efforts, we propose a step-by-step review approach similar to that of the licensee.
[en] Technology-intensive industries can be used as a major growth engine for resource poor country in the territories. For example, in the case of Korea, nuclear power and radiation technology industry was highly developed, and it was possible to obtain national interests such as solving energy problems within the country and exporting nuclear power plants. On the other hand, there are cases where national damage is caused by erroneous governmental policy-making on technology-intensive sectors. In this study, we analyzed cases of misguided governmental policy-making for technology-intensive industry and three factors were identified. And we tried to develop a rational policymaking model using three types of allison’s model in combination. The results of this study are expected to be useful for rational governmental policy-making processes for technology-intensive industries
[en] The relocation of production processes abroad to low-wage countries has become increasingly relevant in times of globalization. Production costs can be significantly reduced by these relocations in order to give the company a competitive advantage. These relocations also cause higher emission outputs. In this thesis, the impacts are examined and then evaluated using various LCA tools. For this purpose, the country-specific energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the manufacturing phase of different reference products of the textile, paper, steel and automotive industry are determined. The low-wage countries of Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand are considered and compared with Germany. Especially China and India have the most CO2-intensive productions. The higher the percentage of electrical energy in the energy consumption of a manufacturing process, the lower are the emissions of Germany as a location for production. The production of the selected goods of the textile and paper industry in low-wage countries causes an average of about 25 % higher emissions than a comparable production in Germany. The products of the steel industry represent a special case. In this case, the emissions of the production in Germany are an average 10 % higher than in low-wage countries. However, China and India also show the highest emissions in this area. By producing a conventionally driven automobile and an electric vehicle in China, 65 % respectively 50 % more CO2 is generated than in a production in Germany. The analysis of the utilization phase of both automobiles shows that from an environmental point of view even today the large-scale use of electric mobility in countries like Germany is worthwhile. In countries such as China, which continue to produce a large part of their electricity from fossil sources, electromobility cannot significantly contribute to the reduction of emissions. This CO2 outsourcing has to be adapted to the effective measures of climate change.
[en] This study addresses attitudes toward nuclear power in an international comparative setting for two distinct scenarios: In a period without an issue-related exogenous shock and in the wake of nuclear accidents. As it cannot be taken for granted that citizens attach increased importance to issues of energy policy, the theoretical discussion deals with various implications of relative issue saliences with a focus on varying politicization levels. The empirical analyses for periods without external events reveals profound context-specific patterns when it comes to the association between predispositions and the evaluation of nuclear power. Theoretical mechanisms that are often generally assumed in the literature are mainly found in economically advanced countries. Moreover, using the Fukushima accident as an example for a scenario with an exogenous shock, the analysis highlights that attitudinal and behavioral reactions have to be conceived of as a complex interaction of elite cues, individual predispositions and long-term dynamics in issue salience. Based on three case studies, the investigation suggests that an increase in issue salience is only present in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima disaster, if at all. As context-specific politicization is relevant for a wide array of political issues - especially for less important topics - the study provides substantial and methodological implications beyond just the scope of the nuclear power issue.
[en] This report presents the results of the qualitative aspect of the study relative to the 2017-2018 French market follow up of residential photovoltaic systems. These results complement those about the quantitative aspect of this same market segment. Content: 1 - Main trends of the photovoltaic market: comparison with the previous year and brakes on sector development; 2 - Supply: a market of innovation, self-consumption, the recurrent problem of environmental crime; 3 - Institutional environment: institutional support to the photovoltaic industry, 'Grenelle Environment' qualification, regulatory aspects of grid connection; 4 - Three proposals to support the sector.
[en] After an identification of 5 postures which clarify the ADEME's role with communities, and of 4 strategic axes to strengthen this relationship, this report discusses how the ADEME can prioritise its actions: an approach adapted to each community in order to strengthen partnerships, to develop the mobilisation of inter-communities, and to maintain a specific intervention with overseas communities. Some specific and targeted actions are briefly presented. The next part outlines the ADEME's role as a trustworthy expert for the implementation of the energy and ecological transition, how the ADEME aims at bringing together actors, mobilises actors and finances actions, takes specific needs of territories into account, and is able to catalyse initiatives. While mentioning some examples, the next part describes objectives and commitments related to a marketing approach and action implementation.
[en] Whereas scenarios with ambitious objectives in terms of reduction of greenhouse effect gases are based on the use of techniques of CO2 capture, transport and geological storage (for example in a scenario developed by IAE and published in 2012 in Energy Technology Perspectives), this study aims at proposing a large economic overview of these techniques applied to electric power plants, and at studying the CO2 price level from which such equipped plants become competitive. This referred as CO2 switch price. The obtained results are in controversy with specialised literature about this level. These differences are discussed and examined. The influence of the different fuels prices is then highlighted.
[en] Highlights: • Analysis of the impact of reduced system inertia on primary frequency control. • Quantification of the primary frequency response requirements in the future GB low-inertia systems. • Assessment of the cost and emission driven by primary frequency control. • Evaluation of the benefits of EVs in supporting primary frequency control. • Identification of the synergy between primary frequency control support and “smart charging” strategy. - Abstract: System inertia reduction, driven by the integration of renewables, imposes significant challenges on the primary frequency control. Electrification of road transport not only reduces carbon emission by shifting from fossil fuel consumption to cleaner electricity consumption, but also potentially provide flexibility to facilitate the integration of renewables, such as supporting primary frequency control. In this context, this paper develops a techno-economic evaluation framework to quantify the challenges on primary frequency control and assess the benefits of EVs in providing primary frequency response. A simplified GB power system dynamic model is used to analyze the impact of declining system inertia on the primary frequency control and the technical potential of primary frequency response provision from EVs. Furthermore, an advanced stochastic system scheduling tool with explicitly modeling of inertia reduction effect is applied to assess the cost and emission driven by primary frequency control as well as the benefits of EVs in providing primary frequency response under two representative GB 2030 system scenarios. This paper also identifies the synergy between PFR provision from EVs and “smart charging” strategy as well as the impact of synthetic inertia from wind turbines.