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[en] In response to the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, France ordered stress tests of its nuclear plants while Germany announced its nuclear exit by 2022. Given that both countries benefitted from nuclear energy with a relatively low risk of a disaster, this divergence is puzzling. Yet France and Germany’s reactions were not ad hoc reactions; they were shaped by their post-war experiences and previous anti-nuclear mobilizations. Fukushima merely offered a political opportunity for the effective vocalization of antinuclear dissent, and ultimately the permeability of governing institutions determined each country’s response. In order to explore this argument, this paper will examine the issue's coverage predominately within one French newspaper, Le Monde, and one German newspaper, Suddeutsche Zeitung, from 11 March to 18 June 2011 to gain insight of contemporary political opportunities and elite consensus as well as how meaning was being constructed and consumed by the public on this issue. (author)
[en] Remote communities in northern Canada are seen by those in both the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) and renewable energy communities as ideal locations for deployment. By replacing diesel generation with more cost efficient and low-carbon power generation technologies, remote sites can realize both economic and societal benefits. Though vSMRs (very Small Modular Reactors) are rapidly approaching readiness for deployment, many remote areas have also considered or are investigating renewable power generation technologies as an interim measure to address power generation issues. While SMR and renewable technologies are very different, it is possible for them to co-exist on the same micro-grid while providing both redundancy and cost effectiveness. However, challenges exist in integrating renewables with nuclear power on small micro-grids. These includes generation dispatching, addressing requirements for backup power, and proving the business case for the deployment of multiple generation technologies. A summary of the considerations for deployment of these types of power solutions is presented along with an LCOE estimate for a representative hybrid vSMR-wind-storage system. (author)
[en] Nuclear energy is a pan-Canadian industry with a complete supply chain. For example, nuclear power generates 15% of Canada's electricity, including 60% in Ontario and 33% in New Brunswick.Nuclear power stations operate in Ontario and New Brunswick. Uranium mining, refining, and fuel fabrication in Saskatchewan and Ontario.Research reactors in Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Quebec. Nuclear medicine across Canada. Markets are signalling demand for smaller, simpler, and hybrid nuclear technologies.Small modular reactors are nuclear re-imagined. Action on SMRs in Canada is best advanced with strategic partnerships. The Roadmap leveraged the convening power of government.
[en] Today, electricity is very important in our life for our activities, lighting, factories, air conditioning, irrigation, refrigerators, etc. utility will be subjected to a lot of problems. So, electric utilities search for a method to provide customers with the electric energy demand with a reasonable level of reliability and economically as possible. Demand-side management is an important consideration for electric power utilities, in order to control using of electric power. Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs consist of the planning, implementing and monitoring the activities of electric utilities which are designed to encourage consumers to modify their level and pattern of electricity usage. The goal of this thesis is to determine the impact of DSM on the power system load curve and on the power system reliability. Different DSM programs will be applied on the power system load curve of IEEE Reliability Test System (IEEE-RTS). Valley Filling method, Energy Conservation method, Peak Clipping method, Load Shifting method and Load Building method will be used to evaluate their effect on the hourly load curve. Different DSM will be applied on the Egyptian will be used to evaluate their affection the hourly load curve. Different DSM program will be applied on the Egyptian electricity power system to determine the effect of DSM programs (only four methods) on maximum annual day load profile and determine the effect of DSM on the total system cost and planning reserve margin.In this study, MESSAGE program will be used to calculate total system cost of the Egyptian electric power system which consists of 89 generation stations. The total system cost (fixed, variable and investment cost) will be calculated for the Base Case, then DSM programs will be applied (Energy Conservation, Valley Filling, Peak Clipping, Load Shifting and) on the Egyptian electric power system in each year for all cases. Also planning reserve margin will be calculated in each year for the base case and with DSM programs. Planning reserve margin will be calculated as a percentage of the total installed capacity. Average annual reserve margin will be calculated for each case of the plan. Also, average growth rate of peak load will be calculated for each case of the plan. Total capacity added in each year will be calculated for Base Case and four DSM programs of the Plan
[en] Nuclear power plants have been restarted, and trials on driving injunctions are being made in some places in Japan. As in the case of responding to Pyroclastic flow, the recent issue has shifted from the academic task to the inter-discipline problem between science and society, such as matching risk recognition with society. In the paper, we would like to explain the discussion points and find out the direction of solution by looking at some experiences and achievements in the areas other than nuclear sector. (author)
[en] Light pollution is an emerging subject in France, international scientific studies on artificial lighting demonstrating the impacts of excess lighting on biodiversity and human health. Non-governmental organizations have taken up this subject in the context of very rapid developments in lighting technologies (LEDs). Public lighting is perceived as the main factor of light pollution even if private lighting is also impacting on certain territories, in particular peri-urban areas. It is noted a lack of coherence in the policy of prevention of the risk of light pollution, seen from the only angle of energy savings linked to the renovation of public lighting, without taking into account the challenges of biodiversity or human health. It is therefore proposed to favor a pragmatic approach on the basis of a 'light' action plan, declined at different scales and by type of actors. The mission proposes that a geo-localized inventory of light sources in the public park of communities be generalized. It advocates launching a national education, information, training and communication plan and opening up a debate on environmental labeling for lighting. Actions could be quickly implemented to raise awareness in particular of traders and businesses about the impacts of dazzling lighting and compliance with regulations, and support communities, reluctant to take a repressive approach. In legal terms, it is considered necessary to make technical standardization the preferred vector for disseminating light pollution prevention to professionals, especially since it is included in the specifications of the renovation operations markets. However, this implies state intervention and an improved articulation with existing regulations. It is suggested that the various sectoral regulations include harmonized provisions for equipment or installations having the same negative impact in terms of excessive lighting. A planning is recommended to better prevent risks at different levels in order to gradually integrate into it a 'star pattern' and a prescriptive and coherent 'light plan', adapted to the local context, including the local advertising regulations. Several priority actions are identified: replacement of the most harmful lamps and bulbs, night-time extinction or sober lighting of commercial and industrial sites, focus on excessive lighting of illuminated advertising panels. Several indicators to raise awareness of the challenges would have to be created such as the number of light points, the renovation progress of the public lighting park, the evolution of indicators of nighttime biodiversity, etc.
[fr]La pollution lumineuse est un sujet emergent en France, les etudes scientifiques internationales sur l'eclairage artificiel demontrant les impacts de l'exces d'eclairage sur la biodiversite et sur la sante humaine. Les organisations non gouvernementales se sont emparees de ce sujet dans un contexte d'evolution tres rapide des technologies d'eclairage (Leds). L'eclairage public est percu comme le principal facteur de pollution lumineuse meme si l'eclairage prive est aussi impactant sur certains territoires, notamment periurbains. La mission constate un manque de coherence de la politique de la prevention du risque de pollution lumineuse, vue sous le seul angle des economies d'energie liees a la renovation de l'eclairage public, sans prise en compte des enjeux de biodiversite ou de sante humaine. Il est donc propose de privilegier une approche pragmatique sur la base d'un plan d'action 'lumiere', decline a differentes echelles et par type d'acteurs. La mission propose que soit generalise un inventaire geolocalise des sources lumineuses du parc public des collectivites. Elle preconise de lancer un plan national d'education, d'information, de formation, de communication et d'ouvrir une reflexion sur un etiquetage environnemental de l'eclairage. Des actions pourraient etre rapidement mises en oeuvre pour sensibiliser notamment commercants et entreprises aux impacts des eclairages eblouissants et au respect de la reglementation, et soutenir les collectivites, peu enclines a une approche repressive. Au plan juridique, la mission estime necessaire de faire de la normalisation technique le vecteur privilegie de diffusion de la prevention de la pollution lumineuse aupres des professionnels, d'autant qu'elle est integree dans les cahiers des charges des marches d'operations de renovation. Mais cela implique l'intervention de l'Etat et une articulation amelioree avec la reglementation existante. La mission suggere que les differentes reglementations sectorielles prevoient des dispositions harmonisees pour des equipements ou des installations ayant le meme impact negatif en termes d'eclairage excessif. Elle propose un dispositif de sanction administrative unifie pour toutes les installations lumineuses excessives, y compris les enseignes et panneaux publicitaires lumineux. Elle recommande de s'appuyer sur la planification qui permet mieux de prevenir les risques a differents niveaux pour y integrer progressivement une 'trame etoilee' et un 'plan lumiere' prescriptif et coherent, adapte au contexte local, comprenant aussi le reglement local de publicite (RLP). La mission identifie plusieurs actions prioritaires: mettre l'accent sur le remplacement des luminaires et ampoules les plus nefastes, sur l'extinction nocturne ou la sobriete de l'eclairage des sites commerciaux et industriels, sur l'eclairage excessif des panneaux publicitaires lumineux. Une suppression d'ici 6 ans du stock des luminaires boules, lampes a sodium et a vapeur de mercure pourrait etre prevue en y associant une action specifique de Recyclum. Seraient a hierarchiser les priorites de renovation et les actions sur les equipements les plus polluants au plan national pour y associer plus facilement une eventuelle aide financiere publique. Plusieurs indicateurs de sensibilisation aux enjeux seraient a creer: l'evolution du nombre de points lumineux, l'avancement de la renovation du parc d'eclairage public, le developpement des trames etoilees, les evolutions des especes temoins de la biodiversite nocturne. La mission propose un pilotage national plus affirme pour definir des priorites d'action publique et mettre en place un veritable suivi sur la base d'indicateurs. La creation d'un conseil national 'lumiere', preside par un elu, associant les principaux acteurs concernes (collectivites, professionnels, ONG), serait ici un atout
[en] The energy rating of the Ajena association is a local barometer of energy costs (expressed in euros/kWh). It allows to identify the most expensive energy sources, to estimate the price difference between them and a space heating cost for a given consumption. The related fossil CO2 emissions are given too
[en] This document presents the results of the survey about environment carried out in France in 2014 regarding: - the perception of air quality and the nuisance caused by air pollution; - the renewable energy sources: knowledge, general and individual acceptability, impact on energy efficiency in residential buildings
[en] Based on the dual observation of the risks linked to the deterioration in the health of our planet and the urgent need to act in combating this deterioration, the President of the Republic has, since 2007, desired the organisation of the Grenelle Environment Forum, uniting around the same table all the players involved with sustainable development on a daily basis: the State, territorial authorities, trade unions, professionals and environmental protection associations. Climate change is therefore at the centre of Grenelle Environment Forum undertakings. Article 2 of the Programme Law of 3 August 2009 on the implementation of the Grenelle Environment Forum conveys this commitment: 'Combating climate change is amongst the first priorities. In connection with this, it is confirmed that France is committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions by four between 1990 and 2050 by reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by, on average, 3% per year, in order to bring the annual greenhouse gas emissions at that date to a level below 140 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent'. The implementation phase for these commitments is underway via: - the programme law of 3 August 2009 on implementing the Grenelle Environment Forum; - Budget Laws 2008 and 2009 and the Budget Proposal 2010 in particular with the creation of a carbon tax; - the bill on a national environmental undertaking (currently before parliament). A Grenelle monitoring committee has been set up in order to maintain the dialogue between the government and the players involved in the first stage of the Grenelle Environment Forum. In addition to the State, it groups together representatives of the 4 colleges (trade unions, NGOs, professional bodies and territorial authorities) and meets regularly in order to present the advancement in the implementation stages. Estimates of the impact of the Grenelle Environment Forum measures show a reduction in GHG emissions of 116 Mt CO2-eq. compared to a trend scenario without the measures taken during the Grenelle Environment Forum. Contents: 1 - Country-specific conditions; 2 - Information relating to the GHG inventory, including information on the national inventory system and the national register; 3 - Policies and measures; 4 - GHG emissions projection and quantification of the impacts of policies and measures; 5 - Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation; 6 - Financial resources and transfer of technology; 7 - Research and observation; 8 - Public education, training and awareness-raising
[en] This article first outlines that the Swiss electric power production which is still relying on hydraulic and nuclear, will significantly evolve as Switzerland is phasing out nuclear, that Switzerland has the lowest share of fossil energy in its electric power production, and that its power production is not sufficient to cover its consumption in winter. Phasing out nuclear is therefore a challenge, and Switzerland supports the development of renewable energies. The second part comments the situation and evolution of the Swiss electric power market which has been partially liberalised since 2009: competition between three main actors, public monopoly in transport, fragmented management of the distribution network with only a part of the population able to choose its provider. Gross market prices are then discussed (market segments, market actors, comparison of the electricity price with European prices). The authors outline that the limited profitability of electric power generation seems to be a limiting factors for future investments, and that Switzerland is only partially connected to the European power market which is however essential for its power supply