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[en] This report, dated 12/31/2017, gives an overview of the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. The report presents the key data for all nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel disposal facilities. At the reporting date of 12/31/2017 12:00 pm, seven nuclear power plant blocks were in operation. Nuclear power generation in 2017 totaled approximately 76.3 TWh (2016: 84.6 TWh). The share of nuclear energy in total gross electricity generation was 11.7% (2016: 13.0%). - For the nuclear power plants, the report summarizes the main operating results and references to the nuclear licences issued in the year under review. A brief description of the current status of the nuclear power plants that have been shut down or decommissioned and of the projects that have been discontinued is given. For the research reactors, the essential data on the type, the characteristic data (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and the intended use of the plant are presented. Furthermore, an overview of the licensing and operating history as well as the current operating status is given. For the nuclear fuel supply and nuclear fuel disposal plants, information is given on the intended purpose and output. Furthermore, the licensing history and the current operating and licensing status are presented. In the field of final disposal, the new legal structures, supervision and ongoing projects are described. The information is summarized at the end of the report in the form of a table.
[en] The development of renewable energy sources is a priority policy of the European Union, including Bulgaria. The country has a diverse power generation mix, including nuclear, thermal power plants and plants using renewables (hydro, wind, solar power plants and biomass). In the Bulgarian energy mix, base capacities includes nuclear power plant and thermal power plants. Unlike the plants involved in regulation frequencies and exchanges, Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) produces low cost electricity but cannot provide secondary regulation for technological considerations. This creates certain difficulties in covering the balance of the power system in periods of minimal load and in the case of forced production of hydropower plants and wind power plants. At the moment, Kozloduy NPP is the only nuclear power plant in Bulgaria and the main electricity generating plant providing more than one third of the total annual electricity output. The trend of steady increase in photovoltaic and wind power, which will remain in the near future, leads to greater instability and uncertainty of the power system. This requires the construction of balancing capacities to have the ability to ensure the security of the system. Building new balancing power plants and expanding existing, characterized by high level of manoeuvrability stop/start and high rate of change of active working power, will overcome the renewable energy system (RES) increase in the energy mix. It should be noted that these measures are related to the increase of both investments for construction and commissioning, as well as increasing balancing costs. In that connection, there is increasing interest in small modular reactors (SMRs) and their applications. It is reasonable for SMRs to be included in the national power energy capacity, replacing the coal plants and balancing the increase of RES in the future low carbon energy mix. Hydropower can meet flexibility needs at timescales, being complemented by storage technologies. (author)
[en] Pakistan has framed policies to further the development of intermittent renewable resources (IRR) in the country. Consequently, IRR share is steadily growing in the electric power supply system (EPSS). This research work assesses the impacts of IRR on the EPSS in long term future, more specifically on the operation cycle of dispatchable power plants and system economics. The EPSS is analysed considering different shares of IRR in the system. The analysis shows that the EPSS of Pakistan can accommodate up to 50–60 GW IRR at a future demand level of 149 GW, which corresponds to about an 11% share of IRR in the total electricity generation. Beyond that, the country can face both operational and economic challenges in handling the power supply system. (author)
[en] The hybrid system concept integrating an HTGR based nuclear cogeneration plant and variable renewable power sources (solar and wind) is characteristic of three major features: 1) The system provides grid stability by the nuclear plant compensating short and long term changes of the renewable power. This is achieved through nuclear reactor control based on HTGR intrinsic design features. 2) The system can be cost effective as the nuclear reactor remains baseload while varying the ratio of cogenerating products. This is achieved without adding significant complexity or cost to nuclear plant operation. The cost with traditional grid stability measures such as battery and standby power plants otherwise required to back up renewable power is saved. 3) The system provides nuclear plant as peaking power and cogeneration of hydrogen, enabling nuclear energy to do more than the traditional baseload power generation. The 2018 Strategic Energy Policy of Japan calls for promoting innovation of nuclear technology including coexistence with renewable energy and multipurpose such as hydrogen production. Given the significant progress of HTGR development and of renewable energy installation seen in the country, the hybrid system is expected deployable supporting the policy goals around 2030s. (author)
[en] A renewable–nuclear energy mix is one of the best options to meet future energy requirements assuring deep decarbonization. Searching for a sustainable solution, numerous nuclear fuel cycle scenarios have been proposed to cope with different alternatives; however, the presence of renewable energies in the mix, as well as the introduction of new technologies for reactors and industrial processes, make the existing codes to require new capabilities. The TR_EVOL code, developed by CIEMAT, is one of the few existing tools capable of estimating key indicators in nuclear fuel cycle scenarios, assessing the presence of renewable energies in the mix. The knowledge of these indicators, along with other variables of the defined energy scenarios, can provide a consistent way for Government, industry and regulators, to plan energy policies for a country. In this paper, TR_EVOL is presented, providing a general description of the code. Furthermore, a fuel cycle assessment and a cost analysis are performed in order to demonstrate TREVOL capabilities. A light water reactor fleet representative of Spain has been chosen to perform the fuel cycle assessment. Results show that the lifetime of the reactors has an impact in the possible reduction in the Pu amount. Some scenarios show a shortage of Pu available for mixed uranium–plutonium oxide fuel fabrication coming from the reprocessing of UO2 spent fuel. Regarding the cost analysis, generation costs of two fuel cycle scenarios show satisfactory results and the estimation of the backend cost results are highly acceptable, taking into account the existing difficulties. (author)
[en] To address the topic of the future energy market and the role nuclear energy plays in providing a reliable energy source in that future market, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) Initiative, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) hosted the “Enabling Advanced Reactors for the Market Symposium,” on March 8-9, 2018, at George Washington University. This symposium brought together approximately 120 technology developers, energy users, government representatives, industry, national laboratories, universities and others to engage in a dialogue about the future energy market and the role of advanced nuclear technologies.
[en] The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had significant impacts on the global economy and energy sector. It has also underlined the importance of electricity reliability and resilience during major disruptions. With governments considering a broad range of options for economic recovery and job creation, it is becoming increasingly clear that stimulus packages have the opportunity to support energy systems that both fulfil these criteria while meeting long-term environmental goals and energy security. The NEA is examining the regulatory and operational impacts of the crisis, and working closely with its members to enable exchanges of policy approaches and best practices around the world. As part of these efforts, the NEA has issued this policy brief to explore the role that nuclear energy can play in the post-COVID-19 recovery, whilst also supporting the path towards a truly sustainable and environmentally responsible energy future. The key messages of this policy brief are the following: - Electricity security is an essential public need, at the same level as food security and access to health care. - Nuclear energy is a key contributor to electricity security and already contributes positively to building a low-carbon resilient infrastructure at the plant and system levels. - Nuclear energy, both new nuclear projects and the long-term operation of existing reactors, can play a key role in the post-COVID-19 economic recovery efforts by boosting economic growth in the short term, while supporting, in a cost-effective manner, the development of a low-carbon resilient electricity infrastructure in the long term
[en] In Turkey, renewable energy potential is very high, but only about 1/3 of total energy production and 1/10 of total energy consumption are represented by renewables. As a result of the increasing energy consumption of Turkey, carbon dioxide & greenhouse gas emissions are increasing. Therefore, it is important to protect the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The geographical location of Turkey leads to use wind, biomass, hydropower, geothermal and solar energies with the combination of other energy technologies for higher performance and better climate change mitigation. Turkey has begun its nuclear program in order to respond to the growing electricity demand, and renewable energies can be effectively used with the nuclear systems for hybridization. Hybrid nuclear– renewable energy systems are combined systems of renewable energy and nuclear reactors to reach better sustainability, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and grid flexibility. In this study, Turkey’s greenhouse gas information, renewable energy sources/fields/installations, and planned nuclear power plants are investigated. Also, the possible hybridization of nuclear and renewable energies considering the solar and wind renewable energy fields and potentials are studied. In this regard, a hybrid nuclear– solar tower collector energy system, a hybrid nuclear–solar parabolic through collector energy system and a hybrid nuclear–wind energy system are investigated for possible installations in Turkey. It is seen that all of these three options can be effectively constructed in Turkey due to high solar and wind potentials. The best hybrid nuclear–wind energy system location(s) can be the Mediterranean Sea and/or Marmara Sea coasts of Turkey, while the best hybrid nuclear–solar energy system locations are the Aegean Sea coast and/or the Mediterranean Sea coasts of Turkey for sustainable and environmentally friendly power production. (author)
[en] The premise of Joint Use Modular Plant (JUMP) Program is to enable both commercial use and research, development and demonstration (RD&D) activities within a single multi-module nuclear plant, wherein a specific module would be allocated to RD&D use via a prearranged agreement between the operating utility and the national laboratory conducting the research activities. The JUMP Program would support increased and expanded use of nuclear energy in the U.S. for various energy applications through the use of one nuclear power module within a NuScale plant for RD&D purposes. In addition to facilitating and demonstrating commercial SMR deployment in the U.S., the primary objective of the JUMP RD&D program is to support multiple current and future DOE-NE RD&D programs. If implemented, the JUMP Program would support demonstration of the safe utilization of nuclear energy for reliable, secure power for resilient microgrids; demonstrate application of nuclear energy beyond the electric sector; provide a relevant test environment for advanced technologies and materials; exercise the supply chain for SMR deployment and help establish new supply chain options; and exercise the regulatory structure beyond traditional large scale light water reactors (LWRs) used solely for electricity. The opportunities made possible by conducting this RD&D using an at-scale nuclear module that is equivalent to a commercial unit, and operating within a larger commercial plant, are expected to provide unique benefit to the research programs. (author)
[en] The purpose of this study is to construct an energy model specific to the Policy Research Center using the cost optimization model and to analyze the major issues of the recent nuclear energy. This study look into for future electricity supply in Korea and evaluate alternative policy options in terms of economic competitiveness, energy security, environmental protection and climate change mitigation. IAEA’s energy planning model MESSAGE is used for constructing and analyzing alternative scenarios. In this study, we carefully classify the 'Load Region', which accurately simulates the supply & demand characteristics of electricity and renewable energy. There are three scenarios in this study. One is BAU case based on 7th national electricity plan and another is NEP-1 case based on energy conversion policy, last is NEP-2 case based on hybrid two case. Even though total installed capacity of NEP-1 is more than in BAU case by 20 GW, total power generation is less than BAU case. Also, When it comes to carbon footprint, there are almost no difference in spite of significant changes of energy mix in electricity sector between BAU and NEP-1 case. But CO2 emission of NEP-2 case is superior than other two cases. We can conclude that nuclear energy plays a critical role in providing emission-free electricity in Korea in the future. The estimated total system cost of BAU scenario is to be around 506 trillion KRW, NEP-1 is 683 trillion KRW and NEP-2 is 608 trillion KRW.