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[en] This paper presents an analysis of available options of restructuring of energy sector within the broader context of economic development without undermining the global climate. Such restructuring involves active implementation of emission free energy sources which ensure sustainable generation of electricity of standard quality in a climate-friendly way. Using available statistical data, the authors analyzed the dynamics of global energy consumption in relation to the level of economic development. The hypothesis of saturation of energy demand during the transition to post-industrial economic development has been confirmed. Saturation of energy demand creates opportunities for a wide scale utilization of innovative ecological methods of climate stabilization and environmental restoration. Restructuring of energy sector in environmentally-safe manner can be especially important in the conditions of fast economic growth of the world’s largest developing economies (China and India). Economic growth in these countries is currently characterized by a rapid increase in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper provides quantitative estimates of the investments required for stabilization of global climate under the projections of future energy demands over the next three decades. The proposed scenario of restructuring of energy sector can be economically feasible, and it is quite likely that electricity in the future will be mainly generated from renewable energy sources and nuclear energy. The numeric estimates and the analysis presented in this paper can be used in formulation of climate stabilization policies in a rapidly growing global economy. (author)
[en] European energy operators are changing. In order to better understand their future activity perimeter, their policy of sales and acquisitions during the period from January 2016 to April 2018 has been analyzed, at the scale of the whole world (as the playing field of these operators is no longer just European, especially when it comes to investing in new businesses). 130 transactions were analyzed: entry into the capital (minority), takeover (majority), acquisition (totality of the capital), even merger. Developments made through internal growth were not included in the scope of this study.
[fr]Pour comprendre la transformation engagee par ces operateurs, nous avons analyse leur politique de cessions et d'acquisitions au cours de la periode courant de janvier 2016 a avril 2018. Nous avons retenu le monde entier comme perimetre geographique. En effet, le terrain de jeu de ces operateurs n'est plus seulement europeen, notamment lorsqu'il s'agit d'investir dans les nouveaux business. Concretement, 130 transactions ont ete analysees: entree au capital (minoritaire), prise de controle (majoritaire), acquisition (totalite du capital), voire fusion. A l'inverse, les developpements operes par croissance interne n'ont pas ete inclus dans le scope de notre etude.
[en] The first of these three thematic studies aimed at characterising households in a situation of energy poverty, from a social-economic point of view, and in relationship with the type of dwelling belonging to the private stock they rent, while the second and third studies address the same issues but respectively for households renting a social housing and for households renting or owning a housing in co-ownerships of the private sector. These three studies are identically structured. A first part details the methodology applied to quantify the phenomenon from the housing national survey (ENL), and to perform a bibliographical study. Thus it addresses the following issues: scope of the study, indicators of energy poverty, ENL processing, bibliographical study. The second part presents the general context of the studied target: the proportion of households in situation of energy poverty within the concerned sample, the comparison of proportions noticed for the three studied populations, identification of the peculiarities of the studied target population. The last part presents results in quantitative and qualitative ways by discussing the characteristics of energy poverties, the social-economic characteristics of households, the characteristics of housings, and the characteristics of households in their housing.
[en] By exploiting geothermal resources at temperatures higher than 120 deg. C, it is possible to produce electricity and heat (co-production). France has developed a significant know-how since 2011 with 2 power plants: Bouillante (Guadeloupe) and Soultz-sous-Forets (Alsace). This development has been accomplished in June 2016 with the inauguration in Alsace of the third French power plant, ECOGI producing only high temperature heat. The achievement of numerous ongoing projects would enable to reach an installed capacity of 180 MWe and 250 MWth in France by 2028. Operating geothermal resources at temperature between 30 deg. C and 90 deg. C, can deliver large amount of heat. It supplies urban districts heating, agricultural installations or thermal baths. It is a dynamic sector with 11 operations realised between 2016 and 2018. The deep geothermal heat in France in 2018 represents about 1,75 TWh, among which 82% is delivered by districts heating. Shallow geothermal energy can provide heat, domestic supply water, cooling and cold for individual housing but also for collective one (tertiary buildings, hospitals, retirement homes,...). The individual house geothermal heat pump market has stabilised since few years, but at a very low rate: around 2500 geothermal heat pumps sold in 2018. This rate is very low compared to 10 years ago and represents a small percentage of a market dominated by air/air heat pumps and thermodynamics water-heaters (around 100 000 unities sold a year each). In the shallow geothermal energy sector, the situation is contrasted: if the private market felt-down in recent years, the collective one shows a permanent growth (+10% a year). Several innovative technologies have showed a strong dynamism, like the geothermal temperate water closed-loop also known as 'thermal smart-grid'. In 2018, the shallow geothermal heat production has been estimated at 2.5 TWh for the private sector and 0,9 for the collective one. These numbers are still far away from the objectives planned by the French Ministry of solidarity and ecologic Transition in its project of multi-annual energy planning called 'PPE'.
[en] Illustrated by many maps, graphs and tables, this publication proposes a rather detailed overview of the status and development (production and location, employment, sector turnover, market and tariffs) of the different electricity-producing renewable energies: wind energy, photovoltaic energy, hydraulic energy, solid biomass, biogas, renewable urban wastes, geothermal energy, marine energies). This issue includes a chapter on the Regional plan for land use and sustainable development (sraddet), and a regional overview of the different electricity-producing renewable sectors. A focus is proposed for each French region.
[en] The heat pump market of the European Union of 28 continued its upward trend in 2019 buoyed by the political determination of some Member States to decarbonize their heat requirements and by the increasing demand for summer relief from the recurrent heat waves. According to EurObserv'ER, about 3.9 million HPs were sold in 2019, which amounts to 12.6% annual growth. The European Union now has an installed base of about 40 million HPs, all technologies taken together, producing renewable heating and cooling.
[fr]Portee a la fois par une volonte politique forte de certains etats membres de decarboner leur production de chaleur, mais egalement par une demande accrue de confort d'ete pour faire face aux vagues de surchauffe estivales repetees, le marche des pompes a chaleur (PAC) de l'Union europeenne a 28 a poursuivi son ascension en 2019. Selon EurObserv'ER, pres de 3,9 millions de PAC ont ete vendues, soit une croissance de 12,6 % par rapport a 2018. Dans les pays de l'Union europeenne, pres de 40 millions de PAC, toutes technologies confondues, contribuent a la production de chaleur et de rafraichissement d'origine renouvelable.
Financial barometer of European energy operators, 2. edition, June 2016. European energy sector, The financial barometer of European energy operators, 3. edition, September 2017. Financial barometer of European energy operators, 4. edition, September 2018. Financial barometer of European energy operators, 5. edition, September 2019. Financial barometer of European energy operators, 6. edition, September 2020
[en] For each year from 2016 to 2020, this publication comments the evolution of key data which illustrate the financial and economic situation of the main European energy operators. Some key data are provided and various issues are illustrated and commented: market context, relative importance of groups, growth situation, EBITDA/sales ratio, profits or losses for different operators, debt relief or increase, evolution of the different types of investment, transformation of the business model, evolution and influence of wholesale prices, influence of digitalisation on the sector transformation, and so on.
SNEC Survey 2020 - Energy Performance Contracting (CPE), situation and results, Survey 2020 - Global report + synthesis. SNEC annual survey, Analysis and propositions of solutions for housing energy efficiency - SNEC survey 2019, Collective heating and energy efficiency. SNEC survey 2017 - Collective heating and energy efficiency
[en] The global report of the SNEC survey 2020 proposes an overview of the context (recall of French objectives regarding energy and ecological transition), presents Energy Performance Contracts as a solution for energy efficiency, discusses the role of the SNEC in the development of these contracts, describes the role of these contracts in the arrangement related to Energy Saving Certificates (CEE), and proposes an overview of the situation. Then survey results are presented: panel presentation, analysis of CPE contractual commitments, analysis per types of action of energy performance. The results of the survey are discussed in terms of development of energy performance contracts over time, of results in energy savings, of benefits in energetic renovation. Statistical data are also presented and briefly commented, notably for the residential sector (different types of housing and of heating systems), housings with collective heating, objectives of energy savings, energy efficiency. This document also proposes reports for 2019 and 2017 which address heating types, the role of CPEs, the main undertaken actions (global, technical, and service-related CPEs), the commitment for performance, opportunities of energy saving in collective housing. Recommendations are stated by the SNEC.
[en] This document presents a comprehensive review of the 2020 market of domestic wood-fuel space heating appliances. Content: 1 - Methodology (questionnaire, sales components, synthesis); 2 - Domestic wood-fuel space heating appliances market: Global market figures (closed hearths and inserts segment, wood stoves segment, cooking stoves segment, boilers segment), sales evolution since 2010; 3 - Wood stoves segment (appliances, sales evolution); 4 - Closed hearths and inserts segment (appliances, sales evolution); 5 - Boilers segment (appliances, sales evolution); 6 - Cooking stoves segment (appliances, sales evolution); 7 - Synthesis.
[en] The European heat pump sector has been able to count on solid heating and cooling application markets for several years. The sales data held by EurObserv'ER shows that more than 3.5 million systems were sold in 2017 in the European Union, which amounts to a 4.4% year-on-year increase. Growth would have been much higher had it not been for the slump in the Italian market, Europe's main market, whose volume is primarily driven by cooling needs.
[fr]La filiere europeenne des pompes a chaleur pour les usages de chauffage et de refroidissement s'appuie depuis plusieurs annees sur des marches solides. Selon EurObserv'ER, plus de 3,5 millions de systemes ont ete vendus dans l'Union europeenne durant l'annee 2017, soit 4,4 % de plus qu'en 2016. Cette croissance aurait pu etre beaucoup plus importante, n'eut ete la baisse du marche italien - principal marche europeen - essentiellement tourne en volume vers les besoins de refroidissement.