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[en] This report outlines the energy-related challenges that cities, particularly large and 'mega-cities', will face during the coming decades. It analyses the technical and policy actions that must be taken to meet these challenges and the role the energy industry and business can play in designing and implementing efficient solutions. The report is the result of a bottom-up process in which World Energy Council members carried out case studies on a comprehensive set of large to 'mega' cities, both in the developed and emerging world. It is complemented by an extensive literature study. An expanding number of large cities face significant energy-related challenges now and in the future. Technical and policy actions must be taken in order to meet these challenges. In this context, energy companies play a crucial role in the design and implementation of efficient solutions. The report studies the growth, development, and energy-linked issues of large cities; develops concepts for a secure and sustainable energy supply and distribution system, including transportation; and recommends norms and the necessary steps to ensure sustainability. Cities studied include Tokyo, Mexico City, Delhi, Toronto, Shanghai, Cape Town, London and Paris (a comparison), and the San Francisco Bay Area. The report contains data, facts, analysis, and proposals concerning: urbanisation and the challenges for a sustainable energy supply (Chapter 1); assessments of the potential and costs of innovative urban technologies (Chapter 2); and descriptions of the 'policy packages' aimed at overcoming the problems associated with cities (Chapters 3 to 5).
[en] This report describes and evaluates energy efficiency trends and policies around the world. While ADEME coordinated this WEC project, the study was carried out over three years with the technical assistance of ENERDATA. The first objective of the study was to identify the recent trends in energy efficiency performance for different countries. A selection of indicators has been used for that and they are available on the WEC web site: www.worldenergy.org. These indicators were analysed by main world regions and presented by country using maps. The second objective was to describe and evaluate energy efficiency policies carried out throughout the world. About 90 countries are covered, a survey was conducted out in about 70 countries and a literature review for the remaining countries. The survey was completed with detailed case studies and focused on seven policy measures: prepared by experts: innovative communication tools, good practices in the public sector, successful financial tools for households, energy efficiency measures for low income households, obligation of energy savings, regulation and compliance and smart meters. Beyond a review of the energy efficiency measures the evaluation aimed to pinpoint the most interesting experiences and draw some conclusions about advantages and drawbacks of different policies. These conclusions should enable countries embarking on energy demand management policies to benefit from the experience of the most developed countries. More and more countries are introducing regulatory or incentive measures for an increasing number of equipment and sectors to slow down the energy demand growth. Despite the continued important role of market instruments (voluntary agreements, labelling information, dissemination), regulatory measures are increasingly used, in particular in sectors in which the market fails to give appropriate signals (e.g. buildings, appliances, etc). The study highlights a number of innovative measures, such as taxes related to the efficiency of cars, the phase out of incandescent lamps, energy savings targets by sector, mandatory installation of efficient equipment, obligation of energy savings for energy companies and others. The study ends ups with 10 main recommendations, emphasising the need for: 1) incentive energy prices, 2) sustainable institutional support, 3) innovative financing, 4) quality standards for energy efficient equipment and services, 5) regular review and strengthening of regulations, 6) packages rather than single measures; 7) measures adapted to less developed countries; 8) measures focused on behaviour; 9) monitoring of the impact of measures; and 10) enhancement of international cooperation. Given a broad geographical coverage and the correlation between indicators and policy measures, this report represents an original approach to energy efficiency evaluation.
[fr]Cette etude a pour but de decrire les tendances de l'efficacite energetique dans le monde et d'evaluer les politiques d'efficacite energetique mises en oeuvre. Cette CME etude a ete coordonnee par l'ADEME et a ete menee durant les trois dernieres annees avec l'assistance technique d'ENERDATA. Le premier objectif de cette etude est de decrire et expliquer les tendances des performances d'efficacite energetique dans ces pays. Dans ce but une selection d'indicateurs a ete produite pour tous ces pays; ces indicateurs sont consultables sur le site web du CME. Ils ont ete analyses et compares dans ce rapport, principalement par grande region du monde, mais aussi pour certains par pays sous forme de carte. Au-dela d'une description des mesures mises en oeuvre, cette evaluation vise a reperer les experiences les plus interessantes et a en tirer des conclusions sur leurs avantages et limites. Ces conclusions doivent permettre aux pays les moins avances dans les politiques de maitrise de leur consommation de profiter de l'experience des pays les plus avances. De plus en plus de pays mettent en oeuvre des mesures reglementaires ou incitatives pour un nombre croissant d'equipements et de secteurs pour ralentir ou inflechir le rythme de croissance de la demande d'energie. Malgre un role toujours important des instruments de marche (accords volontaires, label, information, dissemination), les mesures reglementaires sont de plus en plus utilisees, en particulier dans les secteurs ou les mecanismes de marche sont insuffisants pour donner le bon signal aux consommateurs (batiments, equipements electromenagers). L'etude fait ressortir un certain nombre de mesures innovantes, comme la fiscalite liee a l'efficacite des automobiles, l'elimination des lampes a incandescence, les objectifs d'economies d'energie par secteur ou d'installation d'equipements efficaces, les obligations d'economies d'energie pour les compagnies energetiques. L'etude se conclut par 10 recommandations sur la necessite 1) de prix de l'energie incitatifs, 2) d' un support institutionnel durable, 3) de modes de financement innovants, 4) de normes de qualite pour les equipements et les services lies a l'efficacite energetique, 5) d'un renforcement regulier des reglementations, 6) de paquets plutot que de mesures individuelles, 7) de mesures adaptees aux pays les moins avances, 8) de mesures sur les comportements et pas seulement sur la technologie; 9) d'un suivi de l'impact des mesures, et 10) d' un renforcement de la cooperation internationale. Ce rapport, avec sa couverture tres large des pays et l'association des indicateurs aux politiques fournit une source d'information exhaustive et constitue une approche originale d'evaluation de l'efficacite energetique.
[en] This publication proposes a synthesis of a World Energy Congress which discusses the different meanings accessibility to energy can have in different country regarding basic energy services, economic growth and the struggle against energy poverty. It outlines that there is no unique solution to the problem of accessibility, but multiple, adaptable and complementary solutions. The importance of the mobilization of all energies and of energy efficiency for energy transition is outlined. This evolution should mean more electric power and less carbon. The authors also noticed the problematic relationship between technical feasibility and social acceptance, and that the pace of energy transition fundamentally depends on political decisions.
[en] The contributions of this collective book address ways to conciliate challenges faced by islands regarding their own specific environment and their energy issues. The authors first discuss the characteristics of energy in islands through a discussion of criteria of analysis of the insular energy issue, an analysis of correlation of criteria, and a characterisation of the insular energy issue. Then, they consider the fragility and assets of islands regarding energy resources: dependence on fossil energies, biomass as a local and multi-faceted local resource, wind resources as a possible solution of problems faced by islands, and solar energy as an under-estimated solution. The third part focuses on electric power production in islands: it discusses whether it is a sustainable solution, how to face isolation with the grid, and opportunities related to new technologies and to environmental stakes. The last part discusses how development policies could be an answer in an insular environment by relating energy policies and insularity, by considering opportunities related to energy needs, and by addressing issues of sustainable energy and demand management