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[en] The boundary conditions in the European interconnected grid have changed fundamentally in recent years due to various developments, such as the growth of renewable energies and the liberalisation of the electricity market. For this reason, it is becoming less and less possible for German nuclear power plants to operate at a constant power level at nominal output. Instead, the demands on the flexibility of their feed-in into the European interconnected grid are increasing. In this project, the measures available in German nuclear power plants for flexible feed-in into the interconnected grid were examined. In addition, data from various sources concerning the grid, such as data on redispatch measures, data on the generated power and data on grid frequency curves, were evaluated with regard to the type and frequency of grid support measures. Furthermore, the effects of the use of grid support measures on German nuclear power plants were examined. On the one hand, it was examined which replacement measures were carried out in the I&C systems of German nuclear power plants. On the other hand, it was examined which systems and components are possibly subject to higher loads due to flexible operation and whether the increased flexible operation has so far led to increased failures of these systems and components.
[de]Die Randbedingungen im europäischen Verbundnetz haben sich aufgrund diverser Entwicklungen, wie beispielsweise dem Zuwachs erneuerbarer Energien und der Liberalisierung des Strommarktes, seit einigen Jahren grundlegend verändert. Aus diesem Grund ist für deutsche Kernkraftwerke ein konstanter Leistungsbetrieb bei Nennleistung immer weniger möglich, stattdessen steigen die Anforderungen an die Flexibilität von deren Einspeisung in das europäische Verbundnetz. In diesem Vorhaben wurden die in deutschen Kernkraftwerken vorhandenen Maßnahmen zur flexiblen Einspeisung in das Verbundnetz betrachtet. Außerdem wurden Daten zum Verbundnetz aus diversen Quellen, wie beispielsweise Daten zu Redispatch-Maßnahmen, Daten zur erzeugten Leistung und Daten zu Verläufen der Netzfrequenz, hinsichtlich der Art und Häufigkeit netzstützender Maßnahmen ausgewertet. Des Weiteren wurden Auswirkungen des Einsatzes netzstützender Maßnahmen auf deutsche Kernkraftwerke betrachtet. Dabei wurde zum einen betrachtet, welche Austauschmaßnahmen in der Leittechnik deutscher Kernkraftwerke vorgenommen wurden. Zum anderen wurde untersucht, welche Systeme und Komponenten durch den flexiblen Betrieb möglicherweise höher belastet werden und ob der vermehrte flexible Betrieb bisher zu vermehrten Ausfällen dieser Systeme und Komponenten geführt hat.
[en] Full text: Increasing costs and uncertainty over energy reliability means that nuclear energy is now viable in Australia. The nation is also woefully failing to meet the types of carbon reductions required by 2050 if we are to limit temperature rises to below 2 degrees centigrade. Twenty gigawatts of coal fired power plant capacity is reaching retirement over the next 25 years and this can be readily replaced with 1000MW nuclear power plants. The type of plants required to do the job are currently available and can be operated on the National Electricity Marker (NEM) alongside small modular reactors as and when they become available. There are large hurdles ahead. We have to get rid of legislation preventing the use of nuclear energy in Australia and we need to seriously address energy market design, carbon pricing and ensuring that variable renewable generators pay for the full costs of their deployment on the National Electricity Market. We need to work out how investing in capital intensive power plants that can last in excess of eighty years will be financed in a market that currently does not value low carbon emissions, reliability, capacity or long-term stability. These hurdles are not unique to Australia and in this presentation the results of energy models examined by the OECD in the USA will be discussed. Their findings point the way to nuclear energy being the most efficient dispatchable low-carbon generating source we have if we are to achieve the ambitious emission objective of less than 50 gCO2 per kWh rather than relying on wind and solar PV. Australia also needs to come to terms with the real problems of achieving effective emissions reductions with Variable Renewable Energy (VRE). These include the real problems of providing energy backup to VRE together with the falling utility factors that occur as we attempt to make deep emissions reductions. Modelling carried out in Australia using the EPC model designed by Dr Robert Barr has come to similar conclusions as those arrived at in the OECD reports. These results will be presented together with comparisons to the AEMO Integrated System Plan and deep Variable Renewable Energy scenarios. There will be a brief discussion of the types of nuclear power plants that are currently available. The presentation will end with a discussion of the “The five pillars” of sustainable low-carbon electricity markets as outlined in the recent OECD report - The Costs of Decarbonisation System Costs with High Shares of Nuclear and Renewables. (author)
[en] In the context of the “energy transition", national energy systems are currently undergoing fundamental structural changes. In this context, this work analyzes public acceptance of renewable energies and respective explanatory factors. It goes beyond existing studies by applying the same research design in four countries, which allows for comparative testing of various hypotheses from the research field across countries and technologies.
[en] Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is Ontario's largest clean electricity generator. OPG's electricity output accounts for half of the electricity that powers Ontario homes, schools, hospitals and businesses, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. OPG Nuclear plays a major role in power generation, accounting for a combined 56% of OPG's total generation output in 2018 from the Pickering and Darlington Nuclear Generating Stations. This presentation will provide an overview of OPG Nuclear's current operating performance and key projects, such as the successes and challenges in the nuclear organization, industry leading innovations (isotope productions, Asset Management, X-Lab) and OPG's commitment to the future (Darlington Refurbishment, New Nuclear). From the above, OPG continues to provide low-cost power in a safe, clean, reliable and sustainable manner for the Province of Ontario
[en] For over 60 years, Canada has leveraged its nuclear leadership for significant strategic, economic, and scientific benefit. International engagement and nuclear energy are both under federal jurisdiction. Canada advances its international leadership through instruments and activities across several departments and agencies. Around the world, markets are signalling demand for smaller, simpler, and hybrid nuclear technologies and industry is innovating. Canada's Small Modular Reactor Roadmap (SMRs) as a source of safe, clean, affordable energy is opening opportunities for a resilient, low-carbon future and capturing benefits for Canada and Canadians
[en] Chalk River Canadian Nuclear Laboratories is the single largest science and technology laboratory in Canada. It has wide ranging programs in advanced nuclear fuels and materials research, radiobiology, radioecology and dosimetry, hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes management, nuclear safety, security and risk management, nuclear and systems engineering, nuclear chemistry applications. The big question is how do we partner to enable Canada’s long-term advantage? It could be achieved by building a global partnership ecosystem, inform international frameworks, attract and retain global talent and leverage cross-cutting technology programs
[en] The aim of the present paper is to provide a short analysis regarding the practice concerning the application of the Aarhus Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters (Århus Convention) in relation to the use of nuclear energy. By referring to the individual cases, the question of a balance between the right of the public to participate in environmental matters on the one hand and the interest of maintaining the safety of nuclear installations on the other is being discussed. Specifically, it is an illustration of two sequential cases of alleged violations of the Århus Convention in the context of construction of the Mochovce 3 and 4 reactor units. (author)
[en] Sustainable agricultural technologies are of great significance in fully utilizing agricultural resources and promoting agricultural production. However, the adoption rates of these technologies are often characterized as low in rural areas in China. To figure out the potential salient determinants of rice farmers’ willingness to adopt sustainable agricultural technologies, this paper, by employing the multivariate probit model and ordered probit model, particularly and firstly explores the roles of observational learning and experience-based learning through communication from parents within the household on rice farmers’ willingness to adopt these technologies. Results show that there are strong complementarities and substitutabilities between sustainable agricultural technologies that rice farmers are willing to adopt, and that observational learning and experience-based learning through communication within the household do have pronounced effects on rice farmers’ willingness to adopt some sustainable agricultural technologies and on their intensive use intentions. Therefore, while formulating policies to improve the adoption rates and adoption intensity of these technologies, relevant government agencies should take the complementarities and substitutabilities between sustainable agricultural technologies as well as observational learning and experience-based learning through communication from parents into consideration.
[en] There is a process in Ukraine on updating its first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to Paris Agreement. The first NDC or Intended Nationally Determined Contribution , approved by the Government of Ukraine on 16th September 2015, stipulates that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2030 will not exceed 60% of 1990 level. One of the main objectives of the above-mentioned NDC updating process is to enhance its mitigation ambition in the light of current GHG emissions profiles, abilities and the strong need for economic recovery. According to the data from the last reviewed Ukraine’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2015 the total GHG emissions (without land use, land use change and forestry) in 2015 accounted for 323 Mt CO2-eq. or 33,6% of 1990 level which is the lowest since 1990 due to economic slump in 2014-2015. Therein GHG emissions when producing in 2015 of 157,2 TWh electricity accounted for 58,5 Mt CO2-eq. or 372 kg CO2-eq./MWh that is about 25% less than worldwide average. This is due to the large role of nuclear power in electricity generation sector of Ukraine. The share of nuclear energy in total annual volumes of electricity production increased on about 10% during 2012-2017 and reached its peak level in 2015.
[en] Climate change has become one of the global phenomenon which needs much attention. The most vulnerable is the developing countries hence measures should be put in place to reduce its vulnerability. Like many other developing countries, Ghana recognizes its vulnerability to climate risk and the challenges climate change present for economic development. Ghana’s response to climate change has been very good, when measured by signature and in documentation to meet the external requirements of the international architecture. Ghana has ratified the three main Rio conventions and the Kyoto protocols and has taken steps to meet its obligations under this convention, in particular, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).