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[en] Geothermal steam, often reaching temperatures of 250 deg. to 300 deg. C, always was and is especially now one of the most economical sources of energy. The steam, extracted from wells reaching a depth of 500 m to 1500 m in most cases, is directly conveyed to turbines to produce electricity. However, for a number of reasons, the present development and exploitation of geothermal energy are limited to a few areas in the world, where the existence of high temperature fluids at relatively shallow depths has long been known because of the presence of thermal phenomena at the surface. (author)
[en] Highlights: ► Applying exergy, economic, environment and sustainability analyses to the GDHSs. ► Assessing energy and exergy efficiencies, economic and environmental impacts. ► Calculating the energy and exergy efficiencies of 34.86% and 48.78%, respectively. ► Proposing GDHSs as the most economic heating system. ► Providing a significant contribution towards reducing the emissions of air pollution. - Abstract: This study deals with an energetic and exergetic analysis as well as economic and environmental evaluations of Afyon geothermal district heating system (AGDHS) in Afyon, Turkey. In the analysis, actual system data are used to assess the district heating system performance, energy and exergy efficiencies, specific exergy index, exergetic improvement potential and exergy losses. And, for economic and environmental evaluations, actual data are obtained from the Technical Departments. The energy and exergy flow diagrams are clearly drawn to illustrate how much destructions/losses take place in addition to the inputs and outputs. For system performance analysis and improvement, both energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall AGDHS are determined to be 34.86% and 48.78%, respectively. The efficiency improvements in heat and power systems can help achieving energy security in an environmentally acceptable way by reducing the emissions that might otherwise occur. Present application has shown that in Turkey, geothermal energy is much cheaper than the other energy sources, like fossil fuels, and makes a significant contribution towards reducing the emissions of air pollution.
[en] In this paper the possibility for geothermal energy use for electricity production is presented. The electric power is the most economical and ecological pure energy, which doesn't make any pollution of the environment. There are plenty of mineral thermal springs on the territory of Bulgaria. There are mineral waters with high temperature and under big pressure at the definite depth. (authors)
[en] Investigation of the influence of aquifer interference or interaction in surrounding reservoir with the deep fluid in Kamojang geothermal field since periods time 1992 to 1998 have been conducted. Observation of the steam isotope value was done based on changed of isotopes 18O and D values. Method of investigation was carried out by means stem sampling using total condensate system 18O and D isotopes were analysed using Mass spectrometer instrument. Isotope investigation result from 1992 to 1998 periods show tahat interaction between steam reservoir and aquifer happened in margin area of the west boundary reservoir Kamojang geothermal field
[en] This paper promotes the use of Geothermal energy (GTE) in Serbia, and argues that while GTE is both a viable and environmentally friendly energy source, as demonstrated elsewhere in the world, there is also a multitude of opportunities in this region, and the local knowledge and capabilities required for implementing the GTE plants. First, a general introduction to GTE in is given. The basis of GTE is the thermal energy accumulated in fluids and rocks masses in the Earth's Crust. The main GTE advantage compared to the traditional energy sources like thermo-electric plants is the absence of environmental deterioration, however GTE also has advantages compared to other NARES, as the GT sources are permanently available and independent of weather conditions. Worldwide energy potential of GTE is huge, as the reduction of Earth Crust temperature for just 0.1 deg. C would give enough Energy to produce Electrical Energy, at the present dissipation level, for the next 15,000 years. An overview of the regions in Yugoslavia which have a high GTE potential is given. There are two distinct regions with higher GTE values in Serbia: the first is a part of the South Panonian basin including Vojvodina, with Macva and Yu-part along Danube and Morava rivers. This is a sedimental part of the Tercier's Panonic Sea 'Parathetis', with partial depression and Backa subsupression, and is well investigated due to oil and gas holeboring. The second region includes Central and Southern part of Serbia, south from the Panonia basin, with pretercier's and tercier's magmatic volcanic intrusions, which produce a very high and stable thermal flux. This Region is rich in GT-warm water springs with stable yields, and includes 217 locations with 970 natural springs with temperature above 20 deg. C. These compare very favorably with international locations where GTE is exploited. GTE can be used for Electric Energy production using corresponding heat pump systems, for house heating and warm water domestic or industrial use, for agriculture and for thermal industrial processes. Yugoslav institutions, including Faculty of Mining and Geology University of Belgrade (M and GF-UB) as the leader, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (ETF-UB), Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinca (INN-Vinca) and Geophysical Institute-Belgrade (GI-B), together with companies and organizations of borings and Geo-speciality, have been involved in GT investigations since the early eighties, and there is both knowledge and capability within Yugoslavia to proceed with GTE electricity production, which started on a larger scale in Europe
[en] Determination of geothermal reservoir temperature of surface manifestation in Sumatra and Kotamobagu-North Sulawesi has been done using geothermometer isotope T18OSO4-H2O. SBY-3 (Sibayak) well temperature has also been determined as reference. Geothermometer T18OSO4-H2O method is performed by analyzing isotope 18O of H2O and 34S of sulphate ion (SO4) dissolved in the hot fluid. The value of temperature is determined using Mizutani Rafter formulation. The temperature determination result of boiling spring in Sumatra (Tambang Sawah, Waipanas, Rantau Dadap and Sarula) indicated that the temperature is above 200oC with the deep equilibrium fluid characteristic, where as the temperature of the non boiling spring indicates lower temperature (150oC) and the fluid characteristic is mixing. (authors)
[en] Geothermal studies, as dictated by the further study of the geological structure of the territory of Belarus, the geodynamics of the Earth's interior, in the light of the continuing rise in prices for imported hydrocarbons; search for alternative renewable clean energy. (authors)
[en] Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The papers deal with the evaluation of geothermal resources in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as justification use and development of the geothermal energy. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
[en] According to the recent investigations, it is ascertain that the Republic of Macedonia is one of the richest thermal waters regions. Therefore, the territory of Macedonia is a perspective terrain for geothermal energy exploration. The aim of this paper is to point out the main localities that are priority for further geothermal energy investigations. The chemical analysis of the Macedonian geothermal waters is also presented
[en] Highlights: ► The ground can be used as a storage tank to store hot or cooled water in Jordan. ► The stored energy in rocks was utilized to provide heating cooling, and hot water for homes. ► The underground geothermal horizontal loop in rocks was technically approved. ► It can extract up to six times the heat energy that used in electrical energy. ► Its low capital cost and zero environmental emissions. - Abstract: Earth Energy Systems (EESs) utilize the thermal energy that is stored in rocks and ground water under the earth’s surface to provide homes, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities with heating, cooling, and hot water. Solar energy is absorbed by the earth’s surface which stores up to 50% of the sun’s energy that radiates on it. Consequently, the earth and groundwater’s temperature is relatively constant compared to that of the surface air. The earth’s temperature is generally warmer than the surface temperature during the colder months of the year, while it is generally cooler than the surface temperature during the hot months of the year. In this study, energy was extracted from the underground rocks at Mutah University in Jordan by using the geothermal horizontal closed loop system. Two-meter holes were drilled into the earth’s surface; copper pipes were inserted for liquid to pass through them into the heat exchange system. Then, the liquid was circulated back into the ground. Several temperature differences were measured and reported in the cold and hot months. The experimental results showed that thermal energy stored in rocks can be used to provide homes with heating, cooling, and hot water with low capital cost and zero environmental emissions.