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[en] At Brady Hot Springs, a geothermal field in Nevada, heated fluids have been extracted, cooled, and re-injected to produce electrical power since 1992. Analysis of daily pumping records and catalogs of microseismicity between 2010 and 2015 indicates a statistically significant correlation between days when the daily volume of production was at or above its long-term average rate and days when no seismic event was detected. Conversely, shutdowns in pumping for plant maintenance correlate with increased microseismicity. Our hypothesis is that the effective stress in the subsurface has adapted to the long-term normal operations (deep extraction) at the site. Under this hypothesis, extraction of fluids inhibits fault slip by increasing the effective stress on faults; in contrast, brief pumping cessations represent times when effective stress is decreased below its long-term average, increasing the likelihood of microseismicity.
[en] Heat pumps with the help of electricity use a renewable energy source to supply heat for homes or industrial buildings and to heat tap water. Heat Pumps is a heating unit that will provide us with heat for our home for some 20 to 30 years to come and has a potential to replace traditional heating systems powered by gas, oil or coal. At this time, there is no other heating system that supplies clean heat with the help of up to 80 percent of the renewable solar energy during all year. The paper points to the technology of heat pumps as a renewable energy source, unlike other, neither of alternative ways not to use ecologically and as much energy as the heat pump. (authors)
[en] This report presents the results of the qualitative aspect of the 2017 follow up study of the French market of individual heat pumps. These results complement those of the quantitative study of the 2016 French market activity follow up: 1 - Methodology of the study; 2 - 2016 aero-thermal heat pumps market; 3 - 2016 geothermal heat pumps market; 4 - Market perspectives and R and D; 5 - Qualifications and institutional environment; 6 - Recommendations for the individual heat pumps industry.