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[en] This school, dedicated to young researchers, will clarify our present knowledge of the X-ray sky and give the opportunity to learn about the observatories and tools which are available. The contributions have been organized into 3 issues: -) fundamental physics, -) X-ray and Gamma-ray instruments and analysis techniques, and -) astrophysical objects. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations
[en] The Larmor precession of the neutron spin in a magnetic field allows the attachment of a Larmor clock to every neutron. Such Larmor labelling opens the possibility for the development of unusual neutron scattering techniques, where the energy (momentum) resolution does not require the initial and final states to be well selected. This principally allows for achievement of very high energy (momentum) resolution that is not feasible at all with conventional neutron scattering techniques, because the required neutron beam monochromatization (collimation) will result in intolerable intensity losses. Such decoupling of resolution and collimation allows, for example, for a significant increase in the luminosity of small-angle scattering or high-resolution diffractometers; the fact that opens new perspectives for their implementation at middle flux neutron sources. Different kinds of Larmor clock-based instrumentation, particularly two alternative NSE techniques using rotating and time-gradient magnetic field arrangements, which can be considered as inexpensive and affordable alternatives to present day NSE techniques, will be discussed and results of simulations and first experiments will be presented. (author)
[en] With nearly 900 large-area photomultipliers installed on 12 detection lines at 2500 m depth in the Mediterranean, ANTARES is the first undersea neutrino telescope and the largest volume detector currently operated in the northern hemisphere. The construction of the apparatus was completed in May 2008 with the connection of the two last detection lines. The data sample collected so far contains more than 5x107 triggered events, out of which more than 400 candidate neutrino events have been already identified. In this paper we illustrate the apparatus design, summarize the construction operations, report on the current status of the experiment and discuss its discovery potentials.
[en] The ANTARES detector was operated in a configuration with five lines for a period of 10 months from February until November 2007. The duty cycle was better than 80% during this period and almost 2x107 atmospheric muon triggers were collected. This large sample was used to test Monte Carlo simulation programs and to evaluate possible systematic effects due to uncertainties on environmental parameters and detector description. First results are presented and discussed.
[en] Large volume Cherenkov detectors are under construction or have been proposed for detection of astrophysical neutrinos under water or ice. In all such cases, the neutrinos are inferred from the detection of the Cherenkov light emitted by the charged leptons created in neutrino interactions inside or around the apparatus. The event reconstruction is thus based on charge and time measurements performed by a system of widely spaced optical sensors. The time calibration is a very delicate operation for such experiments, as it may directly affect the reconstruction efficiency and pointing capabilities of the apparatus. In this paper, we illustrate the systems under study for the km3-scale project NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory), focusing on the implementations for the NEMO Phase-1 and Phase-2 prototyping campaigns.
[en] The recent discovery of the cutoff in the spectrum of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays points to an extragalactic astrophysical origin of these cosmic rays. The neutrino flux at the highest energy is expected to come only from energy losses of protons and nuclei during propagation from their sources to the Earth. In this paper we discuss the uncertainties on this flux together with the possibilities of future experiments to discover it. We also briefly review possible Galactic and extragalactic point sources of neutrinos.
[en] A technique to interpolate complex three-dimensional field distributions such as those produced by large magnets is presented. It is based on a modified charge density method where the elementary sources of the magnetic field are image charges with Gaussian shape placed on a three-dimensional surface. The strengths of the charges are found as the solution of a best-fit problem, whose special features are discussed in detail. The method is tested against the measured field of the MAGNEX large acceptance quadrupole, showing a high level of accuracy together with an effective compensation of the effect of the experimental errors present in the data. In addition the model field is in general analytical and Maxwellian. As a consequence, the reliability of the presented technique to the challenging problem of trajectory reconstruction in modern large acceptance spectrometers is demonstrated.
[en] For the electron arm tracking system in the KAOS spectrometer at the Mainz Microtron MAMI a detector based on 2 m long scintillating fibres read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) is planned. Because of the detector's close proximity to the intense electron beam a study of noise and radiation damage in SiPM has been performed. A sample of devices was exposed directly to a 14 MeV electron beam and to a mixed radiation field in the experimental area. First noticeable effects are a large increase in the dark count rate and a severe loss of the gain uniformity.
[en] Presently, PHENIX is developing a fast muon trigger system based on resistive plate chambers (RPCs) combined with an upgrade of the existing muon tracker electronics. The primary goal of the PHENIX muon trigger system upgrade is to study the flavor dependent quark and antiquark polarizations in the proton by tagging high momentum muons from the W decay. For the production of the PHENIX muon trigger RPCs, we take advantage of the existing facilities and expertise that have been accumulated by the Korea Detector Laboratory (KODEL), Korea University, during the development of the forward muon trigger system for the CMS collaboration at the LHC. In this paper, we first summarize the physics motivation of the fast muon trigger system for PHENIX, and introduce the procedure for gas gap production and quality assurance plan.
[en] The first six Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) of RE1/1 in the forward region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector were constructed and are being tested. These RPCs cover the pseudo-rapidity region from 1.6 to 2.1 and will serve as the base detector for the CMS RPC muon trigger. We report that these six RPCs are being tested with the CMS RPC quality certification procedures and that a full measurement of a chamber efficiency of 95±4% has been achieved at an operating voltage of 9.4 kV. This performance demonstrates that the RPC is qualified to be tested at the closest distance to the beam pipe as the muon trigger detector at the full LHC design luminosity.