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[en] A paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change thermal energy storage material was prepared by absorbing the paraffin into an expanded graphite that has an excellent absorbability. In such a composite, the paraffin serves as a latent heat storage material and the expanded graphite acts as the supporting material, which prevents leakage of the melted paraffin from its porous structure due to the capillary and surface tension forces. The inherent structure of the expanded graphite did not change in the composite material. The solid-liquid phase change temperature of the composite PCM was the same as that of the paraffin, and the latent heat of the paraffin/expanded graphite composite material was equivalent to the calculated value based on the mass ratio of the paraffin in the composite. The heat transfer rate of the paraffin/expanded graphite composite was obviously higher than that of the paraffin due to the combination with the expanded graphite that had a high thermal conductivity. The prepared paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change material had a large thermal storage capacity and improved thermal conductivity and did not experience liquid leakage during its solid-liquid phase change
[en] In this study, a conjugate gradient method based on an inverse algorithm is applied to estimate the unknown space and time dependent convection heat transfer coefficient of an annular fin. While knowing the temperature or strain history at the measuring positions of the fin, the convection heat transfer coefficient between the fin and the ambient fluid can be successfully computed. No prior information is needed on the functional form of the unknown convection heat transfer coefficient; and thus, the present study is classified as the function estimation inverse calculation. A particular feature in this study is that the thermal and strain fields are coupled, which makes solving the inverse problem a highly challenging task. The accuracy of the inverse analysis is examined by using the simulated temperature or strain measurements. Results show that excellent estimations of the convection heat transfer coefficient, temperature distributions and thermal stress distributions can be obtained for all the cases considered in this study
[en] Performance analysis of three phase induction motors under supply voltage unbalance conditions is normally conducted using the well-known symmetrical components analysis. In this analysis, the voltage unbalance level at the terminals of the machine is assessed by means of the NEMA or IEC definitions. Both definitions lead to a relatively large error in predicting the performance of a machine. A method has recently been proposed in which, in addition to the voltage unbalance factor (VUF), the phase angle has been taken into account in the analysis. This means that the voltage unbalance factor is regarded as a complex value. This paper shows that although the use of the complex VUF reduces the computational error considerably, it is still high. This is proven by evaluating the derating factor of a three phase induction motor. A method is introduced to determine the derating factor precisely using the complex unbalance factor for an induction motor operating under any unbalanced supply condition. A practical case for derating of a typical three phase squirrel cage induction motor supplied by an unbalanced voltage is studied in the paper
[en] Highlights: • Control of BES for smoothing and hourly dispatch of a PV farm output is developed. • Optimal control strategy for SOC and size of BES are evaluated using GA. • Effectiveness of the control system has been investigated for the case of Malaysia. • The proposed optimal SOC feedback controller has been found effective. • Payback calculations of BES investment is given to highlight the economic benefits. - Abstract: The effects of intermittent cloud and changes in temperature cause a randomly fluctuated output of a photovoltaic (PV) system. To mitigate the PV system impacts particularly on a weak electricity network, battery energy storage (BES) system is an effective means to smooth out the power fluctuations. Consequently, the net power injected to the electricity grid by PV and BES (PV/BES) systems can be dispatched smoothly such as on an hourly basis. This paper presents an improved control strategy for a grid-connected hybrid PV/BES systems for mitigating PV farm output power fluctuations. A feedback controller for BES state of charge is proposed, where the control parameters are optimized using genetic algorithm (GA). GA-based multi objective optimization utilizes the daily average PV farm output power profile which was obtained from simulation using the historical PV system input data of Malaysia. In this way, the optimal size for the BES is also determined to hourly dispatch a 1.2 MW PV farm. A case study for Malaysia is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme using PSCAD/EMTDC software package. Furthermore, the validation of results of the proposed controller and BES size on the actual PV system output data are also given. Finally, a simple payback calculation is presented to study the economical aspects of the BES investment on the proposed mitigation strategy under Malaysian Feed-in Tariff program
[en] Highlights: • HOMER optimisation analysis to plan smart Island energy systems. • Comparison between different storage solutions and power-to transport strategies. • Hydrogen potential use in insular public transport sector. • Comparison between fuel cell electric buses and enriched natural gas fuelled buses. - Abstract: Energy costs, carbon dioxide emissions, security of supply and system stability are common challenges in small islands. Many European islands have become pilot sites of energy innovation, but this green transition goes slowly in other ones usually not connected to the national grid. This study investigates the economic and environmental sustainability related to the integration of hydrogen and batteries storage in small islands, considering at the same time the use of the stored hydrogen for fuelling Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen Compressed Natural Gas vehicles to meet electricity and public transportation demand of islands, so as to increase the Renewable Energy Sources penetration level. Selecting the island of Favignana (Italy) as case study, HOMER software has been used to carry out the energy analysis of different scenarios, in order to identify the most effective energy solution from both technological and economical point of views. Using economic and environmental indicators, the outcomes show that the implementation of a hybrid storage system with batteries and electrolyser can be an adequate and reliable option for increasing energy independency of small island and decarbonizing transport sector optimizing economic and environmental sustainability.
[en] Highlights: ► Electrospun binary fatty acid eutectics/PET ultrafine composite fibers were prepared. ► Fatty acid eutectics had appropriate phase transition temperature and heat enthalpy. ► Their morphological structures and thermal properties were different from each other. ► Composite fibers could be innovative form-stable PCMs for thermal energy storage. - Abstract: The ultrafine composite fibers based on the composites of binary fatty acid eutectics and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with varied fatty acid eutectics/PET mass ratios (50/100, 70/100, 100/100 and 120/100) were fabricated using the technique of electrospinning as form-stable phase change materials (PCMs). The five binary fatty acid eutectics including LA–MA, LA–PA, MA–PA, MA–SA and PA–SA were prepared according to Schrader equation, and then were selected as an innovative type of solid–liquid PCMs. The results characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the prepared binary fatty acid eutectics with low phase transition temperatures and high heat enthalpies for climatic requirements were more suitable for applications in building energy storage. The structural morphologies, thermal energy storage and thermal stability properties of the ultrafine composite fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. SEM images revealed that the electrospun binary fatty acid eutectics/PET ultrafine composite fibers possessed the wrinkled surfaces morphologies compared with the neat PET fibers with cylindrical shape and smooth surfaces; the grooves or ridges on the corrugated surface of the ultrafine composite fibers became more and more prominent with increasing fatty acid eutectics amount in the composite fibers. The fibers with the low mass ratio maintained good structural morphologies while the quality became worse when the mass ratio is too high (more than 100/100). DSC measurements suggested that the heat enthalpies of melting and crystallization of the ultrafine composite fibers increased gradually with increasing fatty acid eutectics amounts, but their phase transition temperatures had almost no obvious variation as relative to the corresponding fatty acid eutectics. Meanwhile, the characteristic temperatures and heat enthalpies of the ultrafine composite fibers varied with the different types of binary fatty acid eutectics. TGA results indicated that the degradation of electrospun binary fatty acid eutectics/PET ultrafine composite fibers with representative mass ratio of 100/100 had two steps and corresponded respectively to the degradations of binary fatty acid eutectics and PET polymer chains; and the charred residue at 700 °C of the composite fibers was lower than that of the neat PET fibers. It could be envisioned that the electrospun binary fatty acid eutectics/PET composite fibers would be extensively used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation.
[en] The dehumidifier and regenerator are key components in liquid desiccant air conditioning systems. Many researchers have developed mathematical models of the coupled heat and mass transfer processes in the dehumidifier or regenerator, and most of the models were solved numerically. Compared with numerical solutions, analytical solutions have more advantages in analyzing the parameters that affect the heat and mass transfer performance. This paper presents analytical solutions of the air and desiccant parameters inside the parallel flow, counter flow and cross flow dehumidifier/regenerator under some reasonable assumptions based on the available heat and mass transfer models. The analytical solutions of the air and desiccant parameters within the dehumidifier/regenerator show good agreement with the corresponding numerical results, and the analytical solutions of the enthalpy and moisture efficiencies agree well with experimental findings. The method developed here can be used in the optimal design of the dehumidifier or regenerator
[en] An irreversible cycle model of the Diesel heat engine is established in which the temperature dependent heat capacities of the working fluid, the irreversibilities resulting from non-isentropic compression and expansion processes and heat leak losses through the cylinder wall are taken into account. The adiabatic equation of ideal gases with temperature dependent heat capacity is strictly deduced without using the additional approximation condition in the relevant literature and is used to analyze the performance of the Diesel heat engine. Expressions for the work output and efficiency of the cycle are derived by introducing the pressure ratio and the compression and expansion efficiencies. The performance characteristic curves of the Diesel heat engine are presented for a set of given parameters. The optimum criteria of some important parameters such as the work output, efficiency, pressure ratio and temperatures of the working fluid are obtained. Moreover, the influence of the compression and expansion efficiencies, variable heat capacities, heat leak and other parameters on the performance of the cycle is discussed in detail. The results obtained may provide a theoretical basis for both optimal design and operation of real Diesel heat engines
[en] This article solves the two dimensional inverse problem of estimating the unknown heat flux at a pin fin base by the conjugate gradient method. In the estimating processes, no prior information on the functional form of the unknown quantity is required. The accuracy of the inverse analysis is examined by simulated exact and inexact measurements of temperature at interior locations of the pin fin. The numerical results show that good estimations on the heat flux can be obtained for all the test cases considered in this study. Furthermore such a technique can be applied to determine the heat flux acting on an internal surface, where a direct measurement is not feasible
[en] This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users