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[en] Investments in pump storage plants are expected to grow especially due to their ability to store an excess of supply from wind power plants. In order to evaluate these investments correctly the peculiarities of pump storage plants and the characteristics of liberalized power markets have to be considered. The main characteristics of power markets are the strong power price volatility and the occurrence of prices spikes. In this article a valuation model is developed capturing these aspects using power price simulation, optimization of unit commitment and capital market theory. This valuation model is able to value a future price-based unit commitment planning that corresponds to future scope of actions also called real options. The resulting real option value for the pump storage plant is compared with the traditional net present value approach. Because this approach is not able to evaluate scope of actions correctly it results in strongly smaller investment values and forces wrong investment decisions.
[en] Overland transport of passengers and goods is primarily accomplished using road vehicles, with the following consequences: - the place of these vehicles in our society is such that it can be described as a society largely built around and for cars, - these vehicles are manufactured in such a way as to propose very large series of products, at an optimal cost for the stakeholders, in particular car manufacturers and parts suppliers, who operate on a global scale. This type of development now runs the risk of reaching its limits due to its generalisation around the world and its impact on global warming. The threats to society are seen in: - a very strong resistance to controlling, let alone cutting back CO2 emissions from transport in developed countries, - sharply rising CO2 emissions in this sector, most notably on a global scale, with the growth of vehicle fleets (passenger cars in particular) in emerging-economy countries, - a nearly total dependence on fossil fuels, especially petroleum. Governments engaged in the fight against the greenhouse effect face a difficult challenge that requires solutions to widely varying problems: - environmental issues (for example forthcoming regulations for pollutants and CO2, modal transfer policies, mobility management policies), - economic issues: the large proportion of motor industry jobs in industrial employment or the economic models for alternative solutions (funding of public transport, urban planning, deployment of electrical recharging stations, etc.), - regulatory issues tied to our car-aligned transport system (outlying urban areas deprived of public transport, security requirements, etc.), - the historic place occupied by cars in our cultural imagery, in which cars are linked to the acquisition of independence, freedom, power, etc. In order to develop technological innovations for improving the greenhouse gas emissions report in a macro-economically difficult context, some industrialists have committed to alliance and unification mechanisms, therefore positioning themselves as key stakeholders in terms of members, solutions or systems for the electrification of automotive traction. Indeed, industrial stakeholders are experiencing significant changes which should be supported. These developments are led by the emergence of new growth models involving: - on the one hand the creation of technological innovations targeting the creation of additional functions for vehicles, - on the other hand the development of added values via mobility service offers to meet new needs expressed in terms of travel. Moreover, support from the State, in particular via the Research Demonstrator Fund, has led to experiments with innovative concepts for components and advanced drive systems. Today, these technological demonstrations must move on to the pre-industrialisation phase so as to assess their suitability to the current market developments or to test their capacity to trigger developments within the market. The Future Investments Vehicle of the Future program will cross this threshold for industrialising these new clean, energy-saving technologies by its use of: - the progress made by the Research Demonstrator Fund and feasibility demonstrations performed on fully or partially electrified vehicles, - the actions undertaken in terms of new mobility and services via the CEI 'Mobility: daily passenger transport and final routing of goods' within the scope of the Future Investments program.
[en] The problems concerning the combined use of micro power facilities with and without hydroelectric storage are discussed. The data that illustrate the cost-effectiveness of their operation depending on the load chart of the users are presented. (author)
[en] Highlights: • Feasibility study in off-grid PVT system for supply of a household demand is done. • PVT system, battery, and thermal storage tank is modeled and optimized using GA. • Irradiation is calculated considering climatic conditions using actual data. • Optimal angles of locating system for maximum solar power absorption are obtained. • Scenarios for raising efficiency is proposed and environmental effect is discussed. - Abstract: Photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) system is utilized in order to meet the electrical and thermal demand using solar energy in Khuznin, city in Qazvin Province, Iran. Although increasing the temperature of PV cells decreases their efficiency, absorbing of thermal energy leads to raise the overall efficiency of PVT system. The main purpose of this study is modeling and optimal sizing of the system, including PVT installation angle, electrical battery, and thermal storage tank for supplying electrical and thermal loads. In this study, annual hourly irradiation is calculated considering climatic conditions and variable parameters. Then, optimal angles of locating system for maximum solar power absorption and extraction are obtained. Thermal and electrical demand of a household consumer is investigated using physical parameters of a practical model and optimization through genetic algorithm considering actual meteorological data of the region. The capacity of the needed battery is obtained by optimization. Also, in order to insure the supply of the demand in severe unpredicted climatic conditions, the connection to the grid as a backup for the system is necessary. Finally, the environmental effect of this system is discussed. In the previous projects, there has not been any feasibility study in the field of off-grid, combined thermal and electrical power production system for household loads and its optimization considering heat and electricity demand which is discussed in this study
[en] Batteries (in particular Li-ion) are evolving as demand rises owing to electric vehicles. Several industrialists have already staked out positions on this market, including the leaders who are mainly in Asia (China, Japan and South Korea). Europe, which has lagged in the production of batteries, is starting to set up ambitious programs for competing with the Asian monopolies. Nonetheless, several technological and economic issues must be addressed to create a durable battery industry for electric vehicles. Among them are: the 'second life' of batteries once they have been used for mobility, and the 'post-Li-ion' solutions for increasing efficiency, reducing production costs and breaking the dependency on critical raw materials. (authors)
[en] Along with the rapid growth in the world population, the concerns regarding the production and consumption of energy originating from fossil fuels have been increasing in recent years. Therefore, there is higher demand to develop “clean” renewable energies to reduce the use of fossil fuel.
[en] This paper investigates the value of large scale applications of electricity storage in selected European power systems in the context of wind generation confronted with a grid bottleneck. It analyzes the market value to 2030 of two storage technologies, assuming the market situation projected for Germany and France. The analysis assesses the evolution of storage economics based on the net present value of cash flows. Sensitivities to market and regulatory drivers of value are assessed, e.g. electricity price spreads, ancillary services revenues, wind curtailment and the level of carbon prices. The paper concludes by suggesting possible ways to improve the competitiveness of electricity storage, such as research and development and deployment programmes, and changes to the design of power markets and regulatory arrangements to enable storage owners to better capture the benefits of storage. Such changes would allow electricity storage, where economically viable, to play a critical role in establishing a future sustainable European power system. - Research highlights: →CAES and PHS are not cost-effective for current market design in France and Germany → Market reforms are run to reward bottleneck avoiding and ancillary reserves → Storage is profitable when all potential socio-economic benefits are aggregated → R and D and D programs for storage improvement are economically and socially justified.
[en] The Canadian Design Engineering Network (CDEN) promotes best practices in engineering design. This annual conference, which provided a forum to exchange ideas and experiences in engineering design, included 2 roundtable discussions on design and innovation in Canadian engineering schools, and design considerations in the accreditation of engineering programs. The conference also featured a student design competition. The main topics of the conference were design education, design for innovation and design practices. Within the topic of design education, the following themes were addressed: design curriculum; design projects and cases; emerging design education tools and techniques; evaluation metrics and techniques in design education; web-based education resources; and, multi-disciplinary design education. Within the topic of design for innovation, the following themes were addressed: technological innovation and creativity; product design; process design; adaptable design; platform and product architecture design; modular design; life cycle issues, reliability, serviceability and disposal/recycling; sustainable design and development; design for manufacturing, construction, services, and the environment; design for life, health and fitness; design methodologies, tools and techniques; distributed design activities and teams; and, web-based design and collaborative design and tools. Within the topic of design practice, the following themes were addressed: engineering, procurement and construction industry; design in auto manufacturing, aerospace industry and high-tech industry; engineering project management; design for sustainability and environmental practices; professional development in engineering design; and, current and future industrial practice trends. The conference featured 30 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs
[en] This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs
[en] This study first reports an analysis of all services which could be provided by storage to the French electric power system. It proposes an overview of existing technologies, a comparison of their technical characteristics, and a synthesis of technologies which are the most suited to the main services. The author then discusses some regulatory evolutions which are necessary for a good development of the power storage sector in France. An economic scenario is then proposed for the development of storage by 2030. The author indicates expected capacities for each technologies and possible valorisations