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[en] Water disinfection is a complex process highly dependent on environmental factors and target microorganisms. Chlorination is the most commonly used disinfection agent worldwide. However, the generation of disinfection by-products (i.e. trihalomethanes) has raised significant concern among water treatment plants and regulators.
[en] These days, fast social development and inappropriate disposal of used water have produced an increase in wastewater generation. New emerging contaminants (ECs) have been detected in the environment, being responsible for negative eco-toxicological and bio-accumulative effects on the aquatic life (Mendoza et al., 2014).
[en] Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are an alternative radiation source to the use of traditional UV lamps, such as low and high pressure mercury vapour lamps. LEDs have higher stability, longer lifetime, higher energy efficiency and are environmentally safer (Lopez-Vinent et al. 2019).
[en] Water is a key factor for the welfare of living beings and ecosystems, as well as for social and economic development. Reduction of availability and quality of water is a global problem which will be increased due to unequal distribution and contamination. Improvements in the efficiency of management and the use of non-conventional resources are key factors in order to mitigate the effects of water shortage.
[en] It is clear to find the relationship between the urban water cycle and the Sustainable Development Goal 6: “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”.
[en] Increasingly, composite indicators and multi-criteria approaches are applied in environmental assessment and decision-making. There are lots of examples applied in the water field, especially in environmental water quality of rivers (Kefayati et al., 2018; Mao et al., 2019).
[en] Concerns over water contamination by arsenic combined with its large geographical distribution at high concentration, and carcinogenic and toxicological effects have urged the development of treatment technologies for arsenic removal.