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[en] Molecule-targeted therapy has become the research focus for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Persistent PI3K-AKT activation is often detected in HCC, representing a valuable oncotarget for treatment. Here, we tested the anti-HCC activity by a potent AKT inhibitor: AKT inhibitor 1/2 (AKTi-1/2). In both established (HepG2 and Huh-7) and primary human HCC cells, treatment with AKTi-1/2 inhibited cell survival and proliferation, but induced cell apoptosis. AKTi-1/2 blocked AKT-mTOR activation, yet simultaneously provoked cytoprotective autophagy in HCC cells. The latter was evidenced by ATG-5 and Beclin-1 upregulation, p62 downregulation as well as LC3B-GFP puncta formation. Autophagy inhibition, via pharmacological inhibitors (3-methyladenine, ammonium chloride, and bafilomycin A1) or Beclin-1 siRNA knockdown, significantly potentiated AKTi-1/2-induced HepG2 cell death and apoptosis. In nude mice, AKTi-1/2 intraperitoneal injection inhibited HepG2 tumor growth. Significantly, its anti-tumor activity in vivo was further sensitized when combined with Beclin-1 shRNA knockdown in HepG2 tumors. Together, these results demonstrate that autophagy activation serves as a main resistance factor of AKTi-1/2 in HCC cells. Autophagy prevention therefore sensitizes AKTi-1/2-induced anti-HCC activity in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • AKTi-1/2 inhibits human HCC cells in vitro. • Autophagy inhibitors sensitize AKTi-1/2-induced HCC cell death and apoptosis. • Beclin-1 siRNA potentiates AKTi-1/2-induced HepG2 cell death and apoptosis. • Beclin-1 knockdown augments AKTi-1/2-induced anti-HepG2 tumor activity in vivo.
[en] A theoretical method for investigating the inter-relation between the electronic and molecular structures of 3d configuration ions in a tetragonal ligand field is established on the basis of the 120 × 120 complete energy matrices. Using this method, the local structure parameters of two tetragonal Cr3+ centers in the NH4Cl:Cr3+ system are determined. Furthermore, the relations between the molecular symmetry and the ligand field symmetry are discussed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
[en] In this paper, superhydrophobic and antibacterial fabric is fabricated via the sequential deposition of polydopamine (PDA), quaternized nanosilica particles and hexadecyltrimethoxy silane (HDTMS). The epoxypropyl dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (EPDDAC)-modified silica particles simultaneously contributed to the antibacterial activity and generated a rough surface on the textiles. According to the results, the obtained fabric showed excellent superhydrophobicity, good washability, and high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
[en] Fluorination of metal oxide using NH4HF2 is one of the most convenient methods of preparing pure metal fluoride. In this paper, some interesting results are evident when NH4HF2 is reacted with various metal oxides and subsequently reducing the pure metal flourides to yield high pure metals. It may be noted that pure metal fluorides, even though expensive, are excellent starting intermediates for making pure metals. The fluorination of these metal oxides interestingly begins right at room temperature. Room temperature thermal analysis and phase evolution with time corroborates to the above fact. At room temperature, it can be seen that not only one but several reactions occurred in steps yielding to different ammonium metallo-fluorides. NH4F or NH3 is formed as the by-product of the reaction depending on the initial fluoride content of charge. Further thermal studies of room temperature reacted samples show that these ammonium metallo-fluorides, decomposes further leading to several other intermediates finally yielding pure metal fluoride. It can also be seen that substantial evaporation of NH4HF2 is possible even before it is able to participate in the reaction. This may result in disturbing the stoichiometry of the initial charge allowing unreacted oxides to remain, which gets converted to metal oxyfluorides (MxOyFz) by reacting with pure fluoride and can cause oxygen to remain in the final product as an oxyfluoride. Additionally, in certain metal oxides, there is a tendency of formation of ammonium metallo-oxy fluorides, which on decomposing can transform back to oxide, instead of a fluoride. Such interesting variations and different process modifications on how to make pure oxygen free metal fluorides will be discussed in the paper. Reduction of this pure fluorides to metal will also be discussed. Variation of “spot technique” commonly used for liquidus determination was used to determine the high temperature reduction steps. Determining the precise process steps helped in enhancing the overall yield and efficiency of the process. (author)
[en] The 3 disordered thermotropic phases (β,γ,α) of C8Cl are studied. By combining this paper's results with previous data, these transitions occur by gradual aliphatic chain disordering and by abrupt changes in the hydrogen bondings at the Cl-N interface. C8Cl mimics temperature dependence of bilayer thickness, chain cross-section, and chain separation/interdigitation transition in biological membranes. 30 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs
[en] Charge separated ammonium fluorides are calculated to have enhanced binding affinities with molecular hydrogen; a model is proposed for a hypothetical porous polymer where naked fluoride moieties are site isolated and available for H2 physi-sorption. (authors)
[en] The products obtained from the room-temperature reaction of ammonium bifluoride and zirconium fluoride monohydrate are ammonium heptafluorozirconate [(NH4)3ZrF7], liquid water, and hydrogen fluoride. This paper discusses ammonium bifluoride and zirconium fluoride monohydrate reacted prior to glass batching, producing dry ammonium heptafluorozirconate which was used to prepare a high-quality ZBLAN fluoride glass
[en] The present study is concerned with the isolation and screening of Mucor species for the production of acid protease in shake flasks. Out of eight mould cultures evaluated, five were isolated from soil and three were provided from the Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Government College University, Lahore. Of all the isolates tested, Mucor pusillus IHS6 was found to be the best producer of rennin-like acid protease producing 75 U/ml of the enzyme. Different agricultural byproducts were evaluated as fermentation substrates and maximum enzyme synthesis (61 U/ml) was obtained when rapeseed meal was used as a substrate. Optimum pH and fermentation period for the production of protease were 5.5 (56U/ml) and 72 hrs (55U/ml), respectively. The production of protease by Mucor pusillus IHS6 was also studied by adding different carbon and nitrogen sources to the fermentation medium. Fructose at a concentration of 1.5% (66 U/ml) and yeast extract at a concentration of 2% (68.2 U/ml) and ammonium chloride at a concentration of 0.1% (67U/ml) were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen (organic and inorganic) sources respectively. Spore inoculum at a concentration of 1% (68.4 U/ml) was found to be the best for protease production by Mucor pusillus. The fermentation broth was found to have strong milk clotting activity with 200 RU. (author)