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[en] In a model of human neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines persistently infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) we previously showed that persistent HCMV infection is associated with an increased malignant phenotype, enhanced drug resistance, and invasive properties. To gain insights into the mechanisms of increased malignancy we analyzed the global changes in cellular gene expression induced by persistent HCMV infection of human neuroblastoma cells by use of high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (HG-U133A, Affymetrix) and RT-PCR. Comparing the gene expression of different NB cell lines with persistently infected cell sub-lines revealed 11 host cell genes regulated in a similar manner throughout all infected samples. Nine of these 11 genes may contribute to the previously observed changes in malignant phenotype of persistently HCMV infected NB cells by influencing invasive growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and proliferation. Thus, this work provides the basis for further functional studies
[en] A pulse shaping mechanism applied to mode-locked lasers is proposed. By adding a linear (forcing) term in the power energy saturation model, we are able to control the resulting pulses in both energy and shape. In fact, this term also provides a focusing effect keeping most of the pulse’s energy confined within the width of the forcing. The appropriate condition for which mode-locking occurs is also derived and links the physical parameters of the system (gain, loss, filtering) to those of the pulse (amplitude, width, energy). Thus, given the desired pulse one only needs to fix the laser’s parameters accordingly, so as to obey this condition, and mode-locking will occur. (letter)
[en] Design conditions for existence of the H_∞ linear state feedback control for discretetime stochastic systems with state-multiplicative noise and polytopic uncertainties are presented in the paper. Using an enhanced form of the bounded real lemma for discrete-time stochastic systems with state-multiplicative noise, the LMI-based procedure is provided for computation of the gains of linear, as well as nonlinear, state control law. The approach is illustrated on an example demonstrating the validity of the proposed method. (paper)
[en] This paper describes a gain stabilization technique for a RF signal measurement system. A sinusoidal signal of known amplitude, phase and close enough in frequency is added to the main, to be measured RF signal at the input of the analog section. The system stabilizes this offset tone in the digital domain, as it is sampled at the output of the analog section. This process generates a correction factor needed to stabilize the magnitude of the gain of the analog section for the main RF signal. With the help of a simple calibration procedure, the absolute amplitude of the main RF signal can be measured. The technique is especially suited for a system that processes signals around a single frequency, employs direct signal conversion into the digital domain, and processes subsequent steps in an FPGA. The inherent parallel signal processing in an FPGA-based implementation allows a real time stabilization of the gain. The effectiveness of the technique is derived from the fact, that the gain stabilization stamped to the main RF signal measurement branch requires only a few components in the system to be inherently stable. A test setup, along with experimental results is presented from the field of RF instrumentation for particle accelerators. Due to the availability of a phase synchronized RF reference signal in these systems, the measured phase difference between the main RF and the RF reference is also stabilized using this technique. A scheme of the signal processing is presented, where a moving average filter has been used to filter out not only the unwanted frequencies, but also to separate the main RF signal from the offset tone signal. This is achieved by a suitable choice of sampling and offset tone frequencies. The presented signal processing scheme is suitable to a variety of RF measurement applications
[en] This paper considers a multi-step output feedback robust model predictive control (OFRMPC) approach for the linear parameter varying (LPV) systems with bounded changes of scheduling parameters and bounded disturbance. Less conservative bounds of future estimation error sets and system parametric uncertain sets are predicted by considering bounded changes of scheduling parameters in LPV systems. In the multi-step OFRMPC approach, an optimization problem is solved to obtain a sequence of controller gains, which considers predictions of future bounds of estimation error sets and system parametric uncertain sets. The optimized sequence of controller gains corresponding to a sequence of Lyaponov matrices have less constraint conditions and also introduce more degree of freedom for the optimization. The proposed multi-step OFRMPC guarantees robust uniform ultimately bounded of the estimation error and robust stability of the observer system. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.
[en] Surface wave methods gained in the past decades a primary role in many seismic projects. Specifically, they are often used to retrieve a 1D shear wave velocity model or to estimate the VS,30 at a site. The complexity of the interpretation process and the variety of possible approaches to surface wave analysis make it very hard to set a fixed standard to assure quality and reliability of the results. The present guidelines provide practical information on the acquisition and analysis of surface wave data by giving some basic principles and specific suggestions related to the most common situations. They are primarily targeted to non-expert users approaching surface wave testing, but can be useful to specialists in the field as a general reference. The guidelines are based on the experience gained within the InterPACIFIC project and on the expertise of the participants in acquisition and analysis of surface wave data.
[en] It is shown that the use of a toothed nozzle array in the active medium generator (AMG) of continuous-wave chemical lasers (CWCLs) allows more efficient mixing of reagents to be achieved in the laser chamber than in an AMG with a slit nozzle array. The results of calculations of parameters of the active medium of a DF CWCL operating in the gain regime for the AMG with traditional and promising nozzle array designs are presented. A kinetic model of processes in the DF CWCL active medium is proposed, which allows obtaining a good agreement with the results of measurements of the small-signal gain. (paper)
[en] Highlights: • A merged hex-mesh CMFD method solved via tri-diagonal matrix inversion. • Alternative hardware acceleration of using inexpensive GPU. • A hex-core benchmark with solution to confirm two acceleration methods. - Abstract: Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) has been widely adopted as an effective way to accelerate the source iteration of transport calculation. However in a core with hexagonal assemblies there are non-hexagonal meshes around the edges of assemblies, causing a problem for CMFD if the CMFD equations are still to be solved via tri-diagonal matrix inversion by simply scanning the whole core meshes in different directions. To solve this problem, we propose an unequal mesh CMFD formulation that combines the non-hexagonal cells on the boundary of neighboring assemblies into non-regular hexagonal cells. We also investigated the alternative hardware acceleration of using graphics processing units (GPU) with graphics card in a personal computer. The tool CUDA is employed, which is a parallel computing platform and programming model invented by the company NVIDIA for harnessing the power of GPU. To investigate and implement these two acceleration methods, a 2-D hexagonal core transport code using the method of characteristics (MOC) is developed. A hexagonal mini-core benchmark problem is established to confirm the accuracy of the MOC code and to assess the effectiveness of CMFD and GPU parallel acceleration. For this benchmark problem, the CMFD acceleration increases the speed 16 times while the GPU acceleration speeds it up 25 times. When used simultaneously, they provide a speed gain of 292 times
[en] We analyse mode-competition (MC) noise in sinusoidally modulated laser diodes and assess its contribution to the noise performance of directly modulated fibre links. The noise figure (NF) is used to evaluate the noise performance of the link. The present analyses are based on a multimode rate equation model that takes into account both symmetric and asymmetric suppressions of the cross-modal gain. Variations of the MC relative intensity noise of both the total output and the oscillating modes with modulation conditions are investigated. The obtained results show that regardless of the fact that the non-modulated laser oscillates nearly in single-mode or in two-mode hopping, the modulated laser oscillates in single mode when the signal is continuous, and converts into multimode when the signal is pulsing. The contribution of MC noise to the NF of the link increases with an increase in the modulation depth and with a decrease in the modulation frequency, except when the signal has period doubling. This contribution is negligible under high modulation frequencies when the laser signal is continuous and uniform, and is most enhanced (∼53 dB) under low modulation frequencies when the signal is pulsing and superposed with non-uniform relaxation oscillations.
[en] Resource theories are broad frameworks that capture how useful objects are in performing specific tasks. In this paper we devise a formal resource theory quantum measurements, focusing on the ability of a measurement to acquire information. The objects of the theory are equivalence classes of positive operator-valued measures, and the free transformations are changes to a measurement device that can only deteriorate its ability to report information about a physical system. We show that catalysis and purification, protocols that are possible in other resource theories, are impossible in our resource theory for quantum measurements. Standard measures of information gain are shown to be resource monotones, and the resource theory is applied to the task of quantum state discrimination. (paper)