Results 1 - 10 of 1881
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[en] Denim garment is getting popular day by day. It is highly demandable because of its versatility, comfort and durability. Different techniques of denim washing increase this demand drastically. Denim washing is the process to enhance the appearance of a garment. This enhanced appearance may be the aged look, faded look, greyer cast, or any other shade setting or resin application. The two most advanced washing techniques are; ozone wash and laser wash. The effects of ozone on environment as well as on the garment are significant and cannot be neglected because number of benefits achieved such as time saving, less energy consumption, chemical, labour cost reduction, less discharge of water and chemicals. Therefore, effects of process parameters on ozone washing for denim fabric have been investigated in this research work using three level factorial design. 33 factorial design has been designed and conducted to investigate the effect of gas concentration, time and speed on the response variables namely; Shrinkage, Tensile and Tear strength of ozone washing. The influence of individual factors and their interactions has been critically examined using software Design Expert 8.0. Prior to the analysis of variance model accuracy has been examined through various residuals plots. The study of residuals plots shown that the residuals are normally distributed and significant evidence of possible outliers was not found. So the model can be used to predicted results with 95% confidence interval. The results from the experiment suggest that two out of three factors were significant, which are speed and time that influences mainly on the tear strength of the denim garment. (author)
[en] Reports of excessive leakage from apparently undamaged domestic microwave ovens have prompted an investigation by ARPANSA. For many years up to now, domestic microwave ovens were not considered to leak levels of microwave radiation that caused concern, consequently, they have not been regularly monitored. This paper reports the investigation of oven leakage, the issue of emission levels versus exposure levels and the application of specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements. Preliminary measurements indicate that under certain circumstances, microwave oven emission limits may not prevent the ARPANSA SAR limits from being exceeded. Copyright (2003) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc
[en] There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.
[en] The optimization of operational parameters in control systems requires the application of a mathematical model of the investigated process. Analytical models are usually complicated and time-consuming. For optimization purposes more convenient are empirical models which express the main characteristic of the behaviour of the investigated process. One of the basic methods of empirical modelling is the application of neural networks. The paper presents the results of the application of neural modelling to identify the energy characteristics of a Cowper stove. The results of numerical experiment have been obtained basing on the analytical model of a Cowper stove. The estimation of parameters of the neural model of a Cowper stove has been carried out by means of the back-propagation method
[en] Determination of moisture content of soil can be carried out in the laboratory, using conventional electric oven or microwave oven carried out in accordance to some standards (e.g., ASTM, BS, MS, etc). This paper will discuss the automation of equipment developed for moisture content determination of soil using a unique infrared technology. The developed equipment uses the normal light source treated with a unique radical powder for the generation of the required wave band identified for the drying of soils. The equipment is uniquely developed moisture content determination equipment, enhanced with specific automation capabilities. It can be used for rapid determination of moisture content of soils for laboratory testing. The program software developed in this study uses Microsoft Visual Basic. All weighings and readings, databases and calculations with respect to the moisture content determination of the equipment is done automatically
[en] General description and basic working principles of new construction prefabricated ceramic fireplace are given. The presented fireplace represents a unique synthesis of various fireplaces distributed in Georgian and some European countries; however, it is distinguished for its higher efficiency and other advantages. (author)
[en] The Australian Communication Media Authority (ACMA) regulates the communication spectrum with sale of spectrum to end users and ensure that crossovers do not occur and generally ensure that the citizens benefit from its use. However, the exposure limits contained in the ARPANSA Standard are only enforceable if they are referenced in ACMA regulatory arrangements. The ACMA's EME regulation instruments reference the ARPANSA exposure limits for fixed installations and end-user devices. The radio frequency background has been steadily growing over the last 50 years. The microwave background is in the range 1μm"-"2 to 1Wm"-"2. In the USA 50% of the population are exposed to levels greater than 50mWm"-"2. One major cause of the electromagnetic radiation is the increasingly intensive competition for the use of available radio frequencies. In 1949, there were 160,000 radio transmitters of all kinds operating in the US. Now there are more than 6,000,000. Telecommunications play an important role in the world economy and the worldwide telecommunication industry's revenue was estimated to be $4.7 trillion in 2012.
[en] At present the international rules for moisture content determination are prescribed mainly for orthodox seeds which are relatively small as compared to recalcitrant seeds. But methods for the very large recalcitrant seeds are not yet available. In this study the conventional oven method was compared with microwave oven. The results obtained showed microwave oven can be used as an alternative method. With some modifications the microwave oven can be used for moisture determination of large seeds, in addition this method has the advantage of requiring much shorter time for the determination of moisture content. Seeds which are dissected to halves, quarters and slices gave better results than whole seeds. In this paper the method used is described
[en] Electronics play an increasingly pervasive role in home appliances and office equipment. This is generally a good thing because the electronics help provide new features and amenities. Electronic controls can also reduce energy use by providing the services only when consumers actually need them. On the other hand, these electronic features often continue to consume energy even while switched off or not performing their principal service. The technical term for this phenomenon is ''standby power consumption'' but it has acquired several common names, including ''leaking electricity,'' ''waiting electricity,'' ''free-running power,'' ''off-mode power,'' and ''phantom loads.'' The leaking electricity found in our televisions, VCRs, garage door openers, cordless phones and many other appliances has a surprisingly large impact on the global environment
[en] Programmes to improve household wood and charcoal stove efficiencies have been launched throughout the developing world over the past 20 years. Their main driver has been to reduce environmental degradation resulting from the removal of trees for charcoal and fuel wood production. In addition, health benefits arise from the reduction or removal of smoke in people's homes. Unfortunately, many programmes have failed to establish sustainable improved stove production - primarily through lack of sufficient attention to consumer tastes and market dynamics. This project, carried out in Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda, has identified key success factors for sustainable stove production and supply by determining the poverty impacts of successful, commercially-based, improved household biomass stove programmes on producers, consumers and others associated with the household fuel and stove supply and end-use business. (author)