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[en] This paper analyzes the influencing factor of motion output of the inspired mechanism under the premise that the motion input is invariant. These factors are respectively expressed as kinematic pair chromosome number, kinematic pair feature gene and distance relationship vector gene by virtue of several concepts and principles in genetics, and then they are encoded. Mechanism chromosome model is established, which is constituted by mechanism chromosome relationship graph and mechanism chromosome matrix. Three kinematic pair chromosome gene recombination operations on mechanism chromosome model (dominance, translocation and metastasis), are proposed by using meiosis and chromosome variance in genetics for reference. Finally the paper takes shaper as the original mechanism and acquires its inspired mechanism, which proves the convenience and practicality of the methods.
[en] Cell division must be tightly coupled to cell growth in order to maintain cell size, whereas the mechanisms of how initialization of mitosis is regulated by cell size remain to be elucidated. We develop a mathematical model of the cell cycle, which incorporates cell growth to investigate the dynamical properties of the size checkpoint in embryos of Xenopus laevis. We show that the size checkpoint is naturally raised from a saddle-node bifurcation, and in a mutant case, the cell loses its size control ability due to the loss of this saddle-node point
[en] In this paper, a free boundary problem modeling tumor growth with two discrete delays is studied. The delays respectively represents the time taken for cells to undergo mitosis and the time taken for the cell to modify the rate of cell loss due to apoptosis. We show the influence of time delays on the Hopf bifurcation when one of delays as a bifurcation parameter.
[en] Cell division, in which duplicated chromosomes are separated into two daughter cells, is the most dynamic event during cell proliferation. Chromosome movement is powered mainly by microtubules, which vary in morphology and are organized into characteristic structures according to mitotic progression. During the later stages of mitosis, antiparallel microtubules form the spindle midzone, and the irregular formation of the midzone often leads to failure of cytokinesis, giving rise to the unequal segregation of chromosomes. However, it is difficult to analyze the morphology of these microtubules because microtubules in the antiparallel overlaps of microtubule-plus ends in the midzone are embedded in highly electron-dense matrices, impeding the access of anti-tubulin antibodies to their epitopes during immunofluorescence staining. Here, we developed a novel method to visualize selectively antiparallel microtubule overlaps in the midzone. When cells are air-dried before fixation, aligned α-tubulin staining is observed and colocalized with PRC1 in the center of the midzone of anaphase and telophase cells, suggesting that antiparallel microtubule overlaps can be visualized by this method. In air-dried cells, mCherry-α-tubulin fluorescence and β-tubulin staining show almost the same pattern as α-tubulin staining in the midzone, suggesting that the selective visualization of antiparallel microtubule overlaps in air-dried cells is not attributed to an alteration of the antigenicity of α-tubulin. Taxol treatment extends the microtubule filaments of the midzone in air-dried cells, and nocodazole treatment conversely decreases the number of microtubules, suggesting that unstable microtubules are depolymerized during the air-drying method. It is of note that the air-drying method enables the detection of the disruption of the midzone and premature midzone formation upon Aurora B and Plk1 inhibition, respectively. These results suggest that the air-drying method is suitable for visualizing microtubules in the antiparallel overlaps of microtubule-plus ends of the midzone and for detecting their effects on midzone formation. - Highlights: • A novel method to visualize antiparallel microtubule overlaps is developed. • Unstable microtubules are depolymerized during an air-drying method. • This method can detect the effect of compounds on antiparallel microtubule overlaps.
[en] We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells
[en] With the gradual development of Ginkgo's comprehensive utilization in recent years, the requirements of leaf yield and growth rate are increased year by year. And the results show that the triploid variety is predominant in these sides, so the ploidy breeding research has important promote significance to variety improvement in Ginkgo. The paper briefly introduced the prophase research of Ginkgo's ploidy breeding, and made a comprehensive discussion of the mutation research and influence factors in the diploid microspore of Ginkgo. (authors)